A worldwide increased incidence of urolithiasis has been observed over the past few decades. Insight into the composition of these stones can lead to enhanced medical treatment and outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the distribution and chemical composition of urinary calculi in Southern Thailand over the past decade.
Materials and Methods:
An analysis was conducted on 2611 urinary calculi submitted to the Stone Analysis Laboratory, Songklanagarind Hospital, a single stone analysis laboratory in Southern Thailand. The analysis was performed from 2007 to 2020 using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The demographic results were described using descriptive statistical analyses, and the Chi-square test for trends was performed to identify changes in urinary calculi composition.
The patients’ demographic data revealed a male-to-female ratio of 2.2:1; the most common age group of affected men was 50–69 years, whereas the most common age group of affected women was 40–59 years. The most common components found in the calculi were uric acid (30.6%), mixed calcium oxalate with calcium phosphate (29.2%), and calcium oxalate (26.7%). We noted a trend of increasing uric acid calculi for 14 years (P = 0.00493), whereas the trend for the other major components was decreasing.
The most common component of urinary calculi analyzed in Southern Thailand was uric acid, with a significant rising trend in proportion in the past decade; the trend of other major components, such as mixed calcium oxalate-calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate, decreased.