Polyorchidism, a very rare congenital anomaly, refers to the presence of more than 2 testes. It is often associated with many other pathologies including cryptorchidism, varicocele, testicular malignancy, and inguinal hernias.
In this report, we describe a 40-year-old man who presented with an intermittently painful left groin, initially appearing as inguinal hernia. On ultrasound examination, a supernumerary testes and epididymis were found in the inguinal canal. The testes appeared sonographically normal with no evidence of associated pathologies. There was no evidence of an inguinal hernia containing fat or bowel.
Ultrasound is essential in first-line diagnosis and classification of polyorchidism. Color Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to clarify findings if sonographic images are inconclusive. We also review relevant literature as it pertains to classification, embryology, and treatment options. Patient treatment is based on imaging findings; if associated pathologies or malignancy is suspected, aggressive treatment such as surgical excision may be necessary. Otherwise, conservative treatment may be all that is needed.