Review ArticlePitfalls and Practical Challenges in Imaging of the Pediatric ScrotumChaudhry, Humaira MD∗; Siddiqi, Madheea MD∗; Simpson, William L. MD†; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus MD† Author Information ∗Department of Radiology, Rutgers–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ †Department of Diagnostic Molecular and Interventional Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Received for publication December 21, 2020; accepted June 7, 2021. D.S. is now with Diagnostic Imaging, McMaster University/Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada. W.L.S. is a consultant to BioClinica, Inc. For the remaining authors, none were declared. No funding was received for this work. Address correspondence to: William L. Simpson, MD, Department of Diagnostic, Molecular and Interventional Radiology, Box 1234, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (e-mail: [email protected]). Ultrasound Quarterly: September 2022 - Volume 38 - Issue 3 - p 208-221 doi: 10.1097/RUQ.0000000000000580 Buy Metrics Abstract Ultrasound is the modality of choice for evaluation of the pediatric scrotum, as it provides excellent image quality without the use of radiation, need for sedation/anesthesia, or use of contrast material and can be used for serial examination. Ultrasound of the scrotum has proven to be useful for assessment of a wide gamut of congenital, infectious, inflammatory, endocrine, neoplastic, and traumatic abnormalities in pediatric patients of all ages from the tiniest premature infant to a fully grown young adult. This review article presents a varied spectrum of conditions that may affect the pediatric scrotum, what the radiologist needs to know to meet the challenge of limiting the differential diagnosis, and how to avoid pitfalls when imaging the scrotum. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.