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A Low-Cost Highly Configurable Phantom for Simulation of Imaging-Guided Endocavitary Procedures

Li, Qian, MD*; Yang, Long, MD; Duan, Yu, MD*‡; Xiang, Feixiang, MD, PhD§; McCarthy, Colin J., MD*; Thabet, Ashraf, MD*; Cai, Wenli, PhD*; Grajo, Joseph R., MD; Baikpour, Masoud, MD*; McConnell, Roland, BE; White, Phillip J., PhD#; Samir, Anthony E., MD, MPH*

doi: 10.1097/RUQ.0000000000000413
Technical Article

We developed a method to create customizable phantoms suitable for endocavitary imaging and interventional research, based on the fabrication of an acrylic phantom mold, and development of a phantom matrix composed of gelatin, agar, graphite particles, and propanol. Our phantom was mechanically stable, easily fabricated, and highly adjustable, and its ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed the qualification for the procedure guidance compared with the human prostate image using the same US system. To test the feasibility of the phantom for the research, the seeds placement guided by MRI/US fusion was performed, and the overall test error (distance from the seed center to the virtual lesion center in olives) was 2.59 ± 0.59 mm. We have created a simple, low-cost, configurable, gelatin-based phantom and tested its feasibility for simulating endorectal interventional US procedures. The design of the phantom mold and matrix is likely to be useful to the broader medical training community, and the preliminary data from the experiment of MRI/US-guided seeds placement showed its potential to test the clinical hypothesis in US research.

*Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;

Department of Ultrasound, Henan Province People's Hospital, Zhengzhou;

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou; and

§Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China;

Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL; and

Department of Biomedical Engineering Model Shop, Massachusetts General Hospital; and

#Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Received for publication September 19, 2018; accepted October 24, 2018.

This study was sponsored by the Analogic Corporation of Peabody, Massachusetts. The investigators retained control of publication rights.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Address correspondence to: Anthony E. Samir, MD, MPH, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, White 270, Boston, MA 02114 (e-mail:

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