Review ArticlesMolecular Sonography With Targeted Microbubbles: Current Investigations and Potential ApplicationsHwang, Misun BS; Lyshchik, Andrej MD, PhD; Fleischer, Arthur C. MDAuthor Information Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Received for publication October 7, 2009; accepted February 9, 2010. Reprints: Arthur C. Fleischer, MD, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, RR-1213 MCN, 1161 21st Ave, South, Nashville, TN 37232-2675 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Ultrasound Quarterly: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 2 - p 75-82 doi: 10.1097/RUQ.0b013e3181df96de Buy Metrics Abstract Sonography using targeted microbubbles affords a variety of diagnostic and potentially therapeutic clinical applications. It provides a whole new world of functional information at the cellular and molecular level. This information can then be used to diagnose and possibly prevent diseases at early stages as well as devise therapeutic strategies at the molecular level. It is also useful in monitoring tumor response to therapy and devising treatment timing and plans based on the molecular state of an individual's health. Moreover, targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography has several advantages over other imaging modalities, including widespread availability, low cost, fast acquisition times, and lack of radiation risk. These traits are likely to advance it as one of the imaging methods of choice in future clinical trials examining the impact of molecular imaging on treatment outcome. This review describes the fundamental concepts of targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography as well as its potential clinical applications. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.