1 Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
2 Department of Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.
3 Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.
4 Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel.
5 Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.
6 Transplant Institute, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.
7 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health, Richmond, VA.
8 Department of Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.
9 Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
10 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC.
11 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.
12 Avera Medical Group Nephrology, Avera McKennan Hospital and University Health Center, Sioux Falls, SD.
13 Department of Transplant, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.
14 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
15 Virginia Transplant Center at Henrico Doctors’ Hospital, Henrico, VA.
16 Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
17 Division of Infectious Diseases & Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.
18 Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé publique (iPLESP), APHP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.
Received 14 July 2021. Revision received 19 July 2021.
Accepted 20 July 2021.
All authors participated in conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and gave final approval of the version to be published. D.L.S. agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
D.L.S. received honoraria for consulting and speaking from Sanofi, Novartis, CSL Behring, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Veloxis, Mallinckrodt, and Thermo Fisher Scientific. R.K.A has received study/grant support from Aicuris, Astellas, Chimerix, Merck, Oxford Immunotec, Qiagen, and Takeda/Shire. S.A. received grant support from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, received consulting honoraria from Merck and Gilead, and was an unpaid consultant for BioMX. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This research was made possible with the generous support of the Ben-Dov family. This work was supported by grant number K24AI144954 (D.L.S.) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and by grant gSAN-201C0WW from the Transplantation and Immunology Research Network of the American Society of Transplantation (W.A.W.).
The analyses described here are the responsibility of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government.
Correspondence: Dorry L. Segev, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2000 E Monument St., Baltimore, MD 21205. ([email protected]).