Various protocols have been established for the differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs into kidney progenitor cell types, single kidney cell types, or kidney organoids. These protocols are often devised so as to mimic the embryonic kidney development in a sequential order, from primitive streak to intermediate mesoderm and to the formation of nephron progenitors to eventually generate different renal cell types. Figure 1 provides a simplified depiction of the differentiation process and includes commonly used protein markers per kidney cell type to distinguish the phenotype and differentiation status.
Anusha S. Shankar, MD, MSc,1 Ewout J. Hoorn, MD, PhD,1 Joost Gribnau, PhD,2 Carla C. Baan, PhD,1 and Martin Hoogduijn, PhD1
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
2Department of Developmental Biology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
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