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On the cover

doi: 10.1097/01.tp.0000553466.07164.70
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Figure

Various protocols have been established for the differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs into kidney progenitor cell types, single kidney cell types, or kidney organoids. These protocols are often devised so as to mimic the embryonic kidney development in a sequential order, from primitive streak to intermediate mesoderm and to the formation of nephron progenitors to eventually generate different renal cell types. Figure 1 provides a simplified depiction of the differentiation process and includes commonly used protein markers per kidney cell type to distinguish the phenotype and differentiation status.

Authors

Anusha S. Shankar, MD, MSc,1 Ewout J. Hoorn, MD, PhD,1 Joost Gribnau, PhD,2 Carla C. Baan, PhD,1 and Martin Hoogduijn, PhD1

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

2Department of Developmental Biology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

References

1. Xia Y, Sancho-Martinez I, Nivet E, et al. The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells. Nat Protoc. 2014;9:2693–2704.

2. Mae SI, Shono A, Shiota F, et al. Monitoring and robust induction of nephrogenic intermediate mesoderm from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1367.

3. Takasato M, Er PX, Chiu HS, Little MH. Generating kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc. 2016;11:1681–1692.

4. Lam AQ, Freedman BS, Morizane R, et al. Rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:1211–1225.

5. Morizane R, Lam AQ, Freedman BS, et al. Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:1193–1200.

6. Taguchi A, Kaku Y, Ohmori T, et al. Redefining the in vivo origin of metanephric nephron progenitors enables generation of complex kidney structures from pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2014;14:53–67.

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