Only 12 of the patients were transplanted before year 2000. Median donor age before year 2000 was 43.0 years (range, 17.5-72.6 years) compared with 67.5 years (range, 36.0-85.0 years) in those transplanted after 2000 (P < 0.001). Patients transplanted before 2000 had increased risk of death compared with patients transplanted after 2000 (hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.7). Recipient age, recipient sex, donor age, and time on dialysis were tested in the same model without any significant association to patient survival. A separate Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a median patient survival of 2.5 years (0.0-5.5 years) for octogenarians transplanted before 2000 (n = 12) versus 5.0 years (3.1-6.9 years) for those transplanted after 2000 (P = 0.028). We performed subgroup analyses limiting the 79+ cohort to those transplanted from year 2000 (n = 35) and comparing the results to those previously reported for the 70 to 79 group. Patient and graft survivals in these recipients are compared in Table 2. Five-year death-censored graft survival was 89% in both groups (P = 0.805).
Our results show that old age by itself should not be considered as an absolute contraindication against renal transplantation. In carefully selected octogenarians, kidney transplantation has an acceptable estimated 5-year survival rate. The reality of worldwide organ shortage for transplantation is a challenge, but should not automatically disqualify elderly recipients.
The majority of ESRD patients who are reaching their 80s have a burden of comorbidities and are obviously not considered eligible for kidney transplantation. Appropriate pretransplant evaluation is extremely important. At our center, we use the same standardized medical evaluation criteria for octogenarians as for younger recipients. Additional fragility tests are only performed when the referring nephrologist is in doubt. An important consideration for elderly patients undergoing transplant evaluation is their likelihood of a favorable perioperative outcome. Huang et al11 published data from the OPTN/UNOS database and compared outcome of elderly recipients (divided into groups 60-69, 70-79, >80) using death during the first 30 transplant days as a metric for perioperative mortality. The overall rate of perioperative mortality was low (1.5%) and only 2.5% in the oldest age group. At 2 years, Huang et al, as anticipated, find that survival was lower for 80 years or older (73%) and 70 to 79 years (86%) compared with recipients aged 60 to 69 years (89%). This difference is, however, similar to the patient survival in the age-matched general US population and to our findings (79+ [78%], 70-79 [85%]).
The benefits of renal transplantation on patient survival are generally not realized until 1.5 to 2 years after transplantation,2,9,12 that is, patients who are unlikely to survive this long should not undergo transplantation. When dealing with a lifesaving but scarce medical resource, such as kidney transplantation, one may ask if it is appropriate that any octogenarians should be advised referral for transplantation. In general, elderly patients with ESRD compared with younger patients have a lower referral rate and chance for placement on the waiting list, even in the absence of absolute contraindication for transplantation. Preclusion based on age alone is considered not fair, but the difficulty in selection, taking biological age, and comorbid conditions along with increased operative risk into account continues to pose a significant challenge to the transplant community. Although there has been an increase in living donation in some countries, both patients and their caretakers unfortunately often remain reluctant toward elderly spousal donations, paired kidney exchange, and the principle of “transplanting one generation up.” Knowing the importance of preemptive transplantation/reduced waiting time, specifically in the elderly, it was surprising to find that no octogenarian received a kidney from a living donor.9,13 With an increasing number of octogenarians entering renal replacement therapy and being evaluated for transplantation, this will need to change. Use of living donors would also, most likely, improve the posttransplant outcome. In most countries, the reality of organ scarcity and prolonged waiting times for a deceased donor kidney transplant otherwise indicate that less than 50% of the selected elderly on the waiting list may have a realistic hope to receive a timely transplant.14 In addition, delayed pretransplant workup or late referral is not uncommon. This may have major impact, especially in the elderly, on the chance for posttransplant success. Time on dialysis before transplantation has been identified as a risk factor for posttransplant survival in elderly patients.13,15 Compared with other transplant centers, the recipients in our study had a relatively short time on dialysis before transplantation, and the mean cold ischemia time was generally short.16,17
After a renal transplantation, there is a need for lifelong immunosuppressive therapy. The optimal immunosuppressive treatment for elderly patients after renal transplantation is not clarified. A leading cause of death in elderly recipients is infections. On the other hand, acute rejection episodes has been identified as a risk factor for death in elderly recipients,15 and the outcome after introducing modern immunosuppressive protocols has been remarkably improved.18 At our center, we have registered improved posttran'splant outcome after switch from azathioprin to mycophenolate mofetil and the introduction of induction therapy with basiliximab.15,18,19 It is important to administer sufficient immunosuppressive treatment to avoid rejection while ensuring that the treatment is not so intense as to increase the danger of infection. There are also some indications that there is slower elimination of CNI in elderly recipients, indicating it might be safe to aim for lower CNI trough levels.20 Currently, we aim for tacrolimus trough levels 3 to 7 μg/L from time of transplantation. Additionally, it is important to have in mind the possibility of reducing the total immunosuppressive load.19,20
Most recipients received kidneys from older donors. Graft failure is known to be higher with increasing donor age.21,22 However, if kidneys from donors as old as 90 years can be accepted for implantation, there is no justification why an increased number of elderly patients could not receive a kidney graft in an old-for-old program.23-25 An active and functioning program would eliminate allocation obstacles and shift organs from younger donors to younger recipients According to the Norwegian transplant program, living donor transplantation is warranted whenever possible—also in the elderly. We have no good explanation as to why this has not been the case in the octogenarians.
The important perspective remains that a successful transplantation is associated with a substantial improvement in longevity and most likely also in quality of life.26 There is currently limited data available in elderly, and no data on octogenarians, describing how quality of life is affected by kidney transplantation. In a previous article from Heldal et al, transplant recipients older than 70 years transplanted between 2000 and 2005 had a survival benefit after 2.5 years compared with age-matched dialysis patients remaining on the waiting list.9 This may improve even further if an increased number of living donors are used. Further studies evaluating the impact on transplantation on survival and quality of life in the elderly are strongly warranted.
A limitation of our study is the small numbers of octogenarians being transplanted. This gives insufficient numbers to make reliable analysis. The majority was transplanted in the last decade, and outcome has improved from 1983 (Figure 1). Our findings are from a population consisting of primarily whites with high socioeconomic status. In addition, one must remember that Norway has a socialized healthcare system taking equally good care of every patient, indicating that similar results may not be found in larger more diverse countries with lower overall healthcare. The strengths of our study are that no patient was lost to follow-up, we have had a uniform single-center approach toward octogenarians and that we historically not have been hampered by lack of organs for transplantation.
We conclude that transplantation in octogenarians is worthwhile. An estimated 5-year survival rate of 55% postengraftment for an 80-year-old patient with ESRD is in our opinion more than acceptable. Increasing number of living donor transplantation in this cohort will most likely improve outcome. Careful selection rather than a fixed age-limit should be used to ensure a satisfactory graft and patient survivals.
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