Pancreas transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains relatively uncommon compared with pancreas transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, several studies have suggested similar outcomes between T2D and T1D, and the practice has become increasingly common. Despite this growing interest in pancreas transplantation in T2D, no study has systematically summarized the data to date. We systematically reviewed the literature on pancreas transplantation in T2D patients including patient and graft survival, glycemic control outcomes, and comparisons with outcomes in T2D kidney transplant alone and T1D pancreas transplant recipients. We searched biomedical databases from January 1, 2000, to January 14, 2021, and screened 3314 records, of which 22 full texts and 17 published abstracts met inclusion criteria. Full-text studies were predominantly single center (73%), whereas the remaining most often studied the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database. Methodological quality was mixed with frequent concern for selection bias and concern for inconsistent definitions of both T2D and pancreas graft survival across studies. Overall, studies generally reported favorable patient survival, graft survival, and glycemic control outcomes for pancreas transplantation in T2D and expressed a need to better characterize the T2D patients who would benefit most from pancreas transplantation. We suggest guidance for future studies, with the aim of supporting the safe and evidence-based treatment of end-stage T2D and judicious use of scarce resources.