Over the last few decades, the life expectancy of solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) has improved significantly. With SOTR living longer, more recipients are dying from cancer. There is a reported 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cancer-specific mortality in SOTR compared to the general population. Cancer in a SOTR can be de novo, recurrent, or donor-derived. Cancer screening in this population is crucial, as early detection and treatment may improve outcomes. In the absence of randomized controlled trials dedicated to SOTR, clinicians rely on clinical practice guidelines from regional and national transplant societies, however these may vary considerably across jurisdictions and transplanted organ. At present, no widely-accepted consensus exists for cancer screening protocols in SOTR, particularly with regards to screening for malignancy related to transplanted organ. Some SOTR may be at higher risk of malignancies within the allograft. This is particularly the case in lung and liver recipients, though less common in kidney recipients who are at increased risk of developing renal cell cancer in their native kidneys. This increased risk has not been uniformly incorporated into screening recommendations for SOTR. In this review, we summarize the cancer screening recommendations for SOTR from various transplant organizations based on transplanted organ. This review also discusses the complexity and controversies surrounding screening of cancer in the allograft and future avenues to improve cancer detection in this context. More studies specific to SOTR are required to form generalizable and evidence-based cancer screening guidelines, particularly with respect to cancer screening in the allograft.