Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths in solid organ transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients, cancer prognosis has been dramatically improved with the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), as programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 inhibitors, that increase antitumor immune responses. ICI has been developed outside of the scope of transplantation because of the theoretical risk of graft rejection, which has later been confirmed by the publication of several cases and small series. The use of ICI became unavoidable for treating advanced cancers including in organ transplant patients, but their management in this setting remains highly challenging, as to date no strategy to adapt the immunosuppression and to prevent graft rejection has been defined. In this article, we report a monocentric series of 5 solid organ transplant recipients treated with ICI and provide a comprehensive review of current knowledge of ICI management in the setting of solid organ transplantation. Strategies warranted to increase knowledge through collecting more exhaustive data are also discussed.