Lack of support for self-management may contribute to adverse health outcomes. eHealth has the potential to support self-management, but evidence in solid organ transplantation remains unclear. This review aims to evaluate the benefits and harms of eHealth interventions to support self-management in solid organ transplant recipients.
We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase databases for randomized trials of eHealth interventions in solid organ transplant recipients. We calculated the risk ratios or standardized mean difference of outcomes, and summary estimates were determined using random-effects models. The Cochrane risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations were used to assess trial quality.
Twenty-one trials from 6 countries involving 2114 participants were included. Compared with standard care, eHealth interventions improved medication adherence (risk ratio, 1.34; CI, 1.12-2.56; I2 = 75%) and self-monitoring behavior (risk ratio, 2.58; CI, 1.56-4.27; I2 = 0%) up to 12 mo posttransplant. The treatment effects were largely consistent across different subgroups except for intervention functionality and mode of delivery. The effects on other outcomes were uncertain. Nine trials reported harms. The overall risk of bias was considered high or unclear, and the quality of evidence was low to very low for all outcomes.
eHealth interventions may improve medication adherence and self-monitoring behavior in the short term, but high-quality intervention studies are needed to determine whether eHealth will improve long-term patient-relevant outcomes.