Information on the risk factors, particularly kidney function, and impact of long-term cardiovascular events (CVE) after liver transplantation (LT) remains scarce.
This is a retrospective, single-center study that included consecutive LT recipients between 2007 and 2017. The incidence of CVE, their risk factors, and their impact on patient survival were investigated.
We included 627 LT recipients. The incidence of CVE was 8% and 20% at 12 and 60 months after LT, respectively. The independent risk factors of long-term (beyond 12 mo) CVE were age at LT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.07), male gender (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.21-5.05), history of pre-LT cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.2-3.98), and immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14-3.3). In patients with pre-LT cardiovascular disease, creatinine levels 12 months after LT significantly impacted the risk of long-term CVE. Long-term CVE (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.24-3.61), hepatitis C as the etiology of liver disease (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.29-3.67), cytomegalovirus infection (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.08-3.3), and donor age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) were independent factors associated with post-LT patient death.
Age, male gender, cardiovascular disease before LT, and cyclosporine A were associated with the risk of long-term CVE. The impact of serum creatinine was restricted to patients with pre-LT cardiovascular disease. In these patients, preservation of kidney function early after LT may lessen the incidence of CVE, which are an independent predictor of post-LT death.