Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Furthermore, we provide a neuroimaging correlate for clinical mimics of pediatric stroke. This review highlights the role of multimodal noninvasive neuroimaging in the early diagnosis of pediatric stroke, providing a problem-solving approach to the differential diagnosis for the neuroradiologist, emergency room physician, and neurologist.
*Section of Neuroradiology
†Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
‡Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
§Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria
¶Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA.
Address correspondence to Giulio Zuccoli, MD, Department of Radiology Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 3401 Civic Center Boulevard, Wood Building 2115 Philadelphia, PA 19104 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Ethical standards and patient consent: The authors declare that all human and animal studies have been approved by the University of Pittsburgh IRB and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. The authors declare that informed consent was waived by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Internal Review Board.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.