Review ArticlesMagnetic Resonance Imaging in Viral and Prion Diseases of the Central Nervous SystemVachha, Behroze MD, PhD*; Rojas, Rafael MD†; Prabhu, Sanjay P. MD‡; Bhadelia, Rafeeque MD†; Moonis, Gul MD†Author Information From the *Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, †Neuroradiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and ‡Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA. Reprints: Behroze Vachha, MD, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (e-mail: [email protected]). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: October 2014 - Volume 23 - Issue 5 - p 293-302 doi: 10.1097/RMR.0000000000000033 Buy Metrics Abstract The early detection and specific diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system are important because many of these diseases are potentially treatable. However, clinical symptoms and physical examination are often nonspecific, and rapid diagnostic tests are available for some, but not all, viruses. Neuroimaging, in conjunction with clinical history and laboratory tests, plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnoses. In this article, we review the clinical features, imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of the more common viral infections and prions that involve the central nervous system. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.