Original ArticlesMagnetic Resonance Imaging of Fetal Developmental AnomaliesGirard, Nadine J. MDAuthor Information From the Department of Neuroradiology, Timone Hospital; and UMR 6612, CRMBM, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France. Reprints: Nadine J. Girard, MD, Department of Neuroradiology, Timone Hospital, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5, France (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Disclosure: The author has nothing to disclose. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: February 2011 - Volume 22 - Issue 1 - p 11–23 doi: 10.1097/RMR.0b013e3182425bb2 Buy Metrics Abstract Fetal developmental anomalies consist of central nervous system malformations, brain injury, and tumors. Overlap is often seen especially between malformation and injury because malformation may be genetically determined or related to external causative agent, whereas brain injury may be, on one hand, caused by malformation as with intracranial vascular malformation and, on another, can cause brain malformation when cerebral insult occurs during organogenesis and histogenesis. The goal of this review was not to describe by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all fetal developmental anomalies encountered in utero; it is most likely to focus on fetal brain anomalies that either are most commonly seen in fetal tertiary care facility or are extremely challenging for MRI. Consequently, the potential of advanced MR techniques such as proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging is also described especially when a challenge is highlighted. This review is therefore organized in subchapters as follows. The first section gives the place of MRI in prenatal development and cites the standard protocol and the advanced techniques. The rules of fetal brain MRI, the challenge and pitfalls, and the selection of MRI cases follow as 3 subchapters. Also, abnormalities are described as 3 separate subchapters entitled ventriculomegalies (hydrocephalus), malformations, and brain injury. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.