Original ArticlesProduction of Narratives by At-Risk American Indian Children in the MidwestMcConnell, Grace E.; Loeb, Diane Author Information Rockhurst University, Kansas City, Missouri (Dr McConnell); and Baylor University, Waco, Texas (Dr Loeb). Corresponding Author: Diane Loeb, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences, Baylor University, One Bear Place #97332, Waco, TX 76798 ([email protected]). This study was funded in part by the Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education, Award Number R324L060012, granted to the University of Kansas. The study was conducted in Kansas when the authors were affiliated with the University of Kansas. We would like to express our thanks to the children, their families, the teachers, and the speech–language pathology students who participated in this study. Author disclosures can be found at https://links.lww.com/TLD/A74. Topics in Language Disorders: April/June 2021 - Volume 41 - Issue 2 - p 153-168 doi: 10.1097/TLD.0000000000000252 Buy Metrics Abstract The narratives of two groups of 28 American Indian children attending a Midwestern Bureau of Indian Affairs school (16 with a mean age of 5;10 years, and 12 with a mean age of 7;8 years) were examined in three contexts: retell, fictional with sequence pictures, and fictional with one picture. The narratives were examined in terms of microstructure (e.g., total number of utterances, total number of words, total number of communication units, and mean length of utterance in words and morphemes), macrostructure, and evaluative elements, which are used by speakers to link events, comment on events and characters, and inform the listener on how to interpret the story. Differences among story task contexts also were evaluated. The narratives of American Indian students differed between age groups and across tasks. The older children produced narratives with longer mean length of utterances in morphemes and more evaluative elements. The older children also produced more end-at-high-point stories, whereas the younger children produced more chronological narratives. Both age groups responded with longer and more complex narratives when generating fictional stories with visual support. Clinical implications are provided for adjusting narrative assessment tasks to be more culturally appropriate for children by modifying the task demands, increasing the role of the listener, and adding cultural relevance to stories. © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.