Original ArticlesSpelling as Part of the Writing Process in Intermediate-Grade StudentsKoutsoftas, Anthony D.; Srivastava, Pradyumn; Harris, Sarah B.Author Information Department of Speech–Language Pathology, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Seton Hall University, Interprofessional Health Sciences Campus, Nutley, New Jersey (Dr Koutsoftas); Department of Rehabilitation, Human Resources, and Communication Disorders, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno (Dr Srivastava); and Kennedy Krieger Institute, Fairmount Lower/Middle School, Baltimore, Maryland (Ms Harris). Corresponding Author: Anthony D. Koutsoftas, PhD, Department of Speech–Language Pathology, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Seton Hall University, Interprofessional Health Sciences Campus, 340 Kingsland St, Bldg 123, Nutley, NJ 07110 ([email protected]). The authors thank the districts, schools, teachers, and students who participated in this research, and the research assistants who helped with data collection and analyses for this project. Data collection for this project was partially funded by an ASHA Foundation New Investigators Grant awarded to Anthony D. Koutsoftas in 2011. There are no additional financial or nonfinancial relationships to disclose for Anthony D. Koutsoftas, Pradyumn Srivastava, or Sarah B. Harris. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.topicsinlanguagedisorders.com). Topics in Language Disorders: October/December 2020 - Volume 40 - Issue 4 - p 375-388 doi: 10.1097/TLD.0000000000000231 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Spelling is an important skill that requires knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography, as well as strong visual memory. In this study, we introduce a spelling coding rubric that accounts for different knowledge types needed for spelling and can be used to describe error patterns for both encoding and decoding as part of the writing process. Eighty participants wrote a first draft and final copy of a narrative generated with extended time over 3 days. Spelling error patterns from these samples were coded using the spelling coding rubric, which was informed by prior research. Approximately 2% of words were misspelled, and the frequency of error types across error codes was similar on first drafts and final copies and required that all 15 error codes be applied to writing samples. Interrater agreement for coding errors was acceptable. The spelling coding rubric described the spelling error patterns in the writing samples while accounting for spelling knowledge in a usable way for educators. Clinical implications and future directions of this research are discussed. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.