With the advancement of medicine and technology, along with improvements in preventative medicine, the average age of the US population continues to rise. Research estimates that by the year 2050, there will be more than 65 million older adults living, with 19 million being older than 85 years. As the population ages, more individuals will seek out physical therapy services for spine-related pathologies. Little evidence is currently available on the safety and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions in older adults. The purpose of this review was to discuss the safety and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions targeted at the thoracic spine in older individuals.
Department of Physical Therapy, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York (Dr Masaracchio); Department of Physical Therapy, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Dr Ojha); and Beinn Sonas Physical Therapy Services, Elbert, Colorado and Manual Therapy Fellowship Program, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (Dr MacDonald).
Correspondence: Michael Masaracchio, PT, PhD, DPT, OCS, SCS, FAAOMPT, Department of Physical Therapy, Long Island University, 1 University Plaza HS 201, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (Michael.firstname.lastname@example.org).
The authors of this manuscript have no financial interests or conflict of interest to disclose.