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A Review of Clinical Outcome Assessment Instruments for Gait, Balance, and Fall Risk in Persons With Lower Extremity Amputation

Hart-Hughes, Stephanie MSMS, PT, NCS; Latlief, Gail A. DO, FAAPMR; Phillips, Samuel PhD, CP, FAAOP; Groer, Shirley PhD; Highsmith, M. Jason DPT, CP, FAAOP

Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation: January/March 2014 - Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 70–76
doi: 10.1097/TGR.0b013e318215cbb3
Special Feature

Lower extremity amputation is known to compromise gait, balance, and overall capacity to react to slips and trips. Given an estimated 1.8 million persons in the United States living with limb loss with an expectation for this number to double by the year 2050, the need for rehabilitative care providers to evaluate and develop treatment plans to minimize the potential for falls will surely rise. Objective measurement of fall risk and evaluation of the effect of targeted treatment interventions are essential to enhancing the quality of rehabilitative care. As a means to this end, the development and use of objective outcome measures that are relevant to the amputee population are necessary. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe these tools and critically review their respective clinical strengths and limitations.

HSR&D/RR&D Center of Excellence, Maximizing Rehabilitation Outcomes, James A. Haley Veterans' Medical Center (Ms Hart-Hughes, Drs Latlief, Phillips, and Groer, and Dr Highsmith), and Department of Neurology (Dr Latlief) and School of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences (Dr Highsmith), University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Correspondence: Stephanie Hart-Hughes, MSMS, PT, NCS, 8900 Grand Oak Circle (118M), Tampa, FL 33637 (

Preparation of this manuscript was funded by the Veterans' Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety, Tampa Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, and the HSR&D/RR&D Center of Excellence Maximizing Rehabilitation Outcomes.

The contents of this manuscript do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

© 2014Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins