FOCUS ON VITAMIN DVitamin D Status of Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderJohnson, Stephani R. MS, RD; Zelig, Rena DCN, RD, CDE, CSG; Parker, Anna DCN, MS, RD, CDE, CCRCAuthor Information Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Professions, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey. Correspondence: Stephani R. Johnson, MS, RD, 9 Millstone Dr, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (Sjohnsonrd@gmail.com). S.R.J., R.Z., and AP designed research; S.R.J. conducted research; and S.R.J. primarily wrote the paper, but R.Z. and A.P. provided oversight and assistance with content and editing. S.R.J. had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Topics in Clinical Nutrition: July/September 2020 - Volume 35 - Issue 3 - p 222-239 doi: 10.1097/TIN.0000000000000202 Buy Metrics Abstract Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder, but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Vitamin D deficiency may increase risk for ADHD. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status of children with ADHD. Most of the evidence suggests that children with ADHD have significantly lower vitamin D levels than children without ADHD. Supplementation may help treat ADHD symptoms, but some investigators concluded that children with ADHD and children without ADHD do not significantly differ in vitamin D levels. However, identifying and treating vitamin D deficiency remains important for this population. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.