The gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We assessed the gut microbiota and its relationship with clinical variables in 10 HD patients. We found that the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was positively associated with traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, Faecalibacterium was positively associated with carbohydrate intake and negatively associated with arterial stiffness. Finally, endotoxemia was inversely associated with butyrate producers. Future studies should assess whether targeting the gut microbiota results in a lower burden for cardiovascular disease in HD patients.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Drs Biruete, Allen, Jeong, Fitschen, Swanson, and Wilund), and Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana (Dr Kistler).
Correspondence: Kenneth R. Wilund, PhD, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 906 S. Goodwin Ave, Louise Freer Hall, Urbana, IL, 61801 (email@example.com).
A.B. was funded by a Predoctoral Fellowship from CONACyT (Mexico's Council of Science and Technology) and received research funding from the Renal Research Institute. P.J.F. has received funding from the Renal Research Institute and the American College of Sports Medicine. K.R.W. has received funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Renal Research Institute. J.M.A., B.M.K., J.H.J., and K.S.S. have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.
The authors thank the patients and staff of the Champaign-Urbana Dialysis units for their continuous support. They also thank Tzu-Wen Liu Cross for her input with the gut microbiota analyses.
The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.