Most Popular Articles

Low voltage on the 12-lead ECG: A warning sign

Dzikowicz, Dillon J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(9):33-40, September 2020.

A 12-lead ECG showing low voltage should be a red flag to providers and can be caused by several serious conditions. A case reported is included that describes how an NP correctly treated a patient with low voltage on an ECG by discerning and managing the underlying causes.

35th Annual APRN Legislative Update: Updates to APRN practice authority in the United States

Haney, Beth

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(1):20-47, January 2023.

Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) continue to make history by being at the forefront of legislative victories that have culminated in increased patient access to care. Modernization of APRN practice in various states, some influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, has resulted in easing of regulations, including those relating to supervision, collaboration, license renewal, and portability in reduced and restricted practice settings.

APRN transition to practice: Program development tips

Urbanowicz, Janet

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(12):50-55, December 2019.

Leaving the comfort zone of being an experienced RN for a new career as an inexperienced advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is one of the greatest difficulties of the APRN transition to practice. To date, very few formal APRN residency or fellowship transition programs exist. Practicing APRNs can advocate for a formal transition program in their organizations.

Recurrent bacterial vaginosis

Ellington, Kelly; Saccomano, Scott J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(10):27-32, October 2020.

Bacterial vaginosis recurrence is common but can lead to recurrent bothersome symptoms associated with infection. This article reviews evidence-based options for practicing providers to improve patient outcomes. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Adequate treatment is essential to help avoid adverse patient outcomes.

SGLT2 inhibitors: What role do they play in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction?

Lenahan, Christy McDonald; Harrington, Deedra; Stueben, Frances

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(7):30-37, July 2021.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can decrease risk for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and can decrease risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure (HF) and diabetes. Specific SGLT2 inhibitors can also decrease major cardiovascular events in patients with HF only.

Delirium prevention and management in hospitalized older adults

Blodgett, Thomas J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(5):12-19, May 2023.

Delirium is a common neurocognitive disorder among hospitalized older adults, and it can have devastating effects. The purpose of this article is to inform NPs in the hospital setting to recognize, prevent, and manage delirium in older adults. The roles of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are described.

The therapeutic versatility of antihistamines: A comprehensive review

Shirley, David W.; Sterrett, James; Haga, Neal; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(2):8-21, February 2020.

Antihistamines are common and readily available medications for primary care patients and those seeking over-the-counter treatments. This article provides an overview of available antihistamines, their mechanisms of action, safety concerns in specific populations, and their therapeutic uses in several common conditions.

Infertility management in primary care

Thable, Angela; Duff, Elsie; Dika, Cheryl

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(5):48-54, May 2020.

Infertility is a growing issue for couples. Primary care NPs can manage initial treatment as well as address the emotional and financial burdens of patients experiencing infertility. NPs can provide timely access to investigations and treatment, helping patients achieve their goal of pregnancy sooner.

34th Annual APRN Legislative Update: Trends in APRN practice authority during the COVID-19 global pandemic

Phillips, Susanne J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(1):21-47, January 2022.

Relaxation of existing regulations in supervision, collaboration, license renewal, and portability due to the continuing COVID-19 pandemic improved practice authority for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in reduced- and restricted practice states. This 34th Annual Legislative Update covers the scope of practice changes, and legislative and regulatory decisions that most impacted APRNs across the US in 2021.

Best practices in benzodiazepine prescribing and management in primary care

Champion, Claire; Kameg, Brayden N.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(3):30-36, March 2021.

Despite the lack of evidence regarding the long-term effectiveness of benzodiazepines and their potential harmful effects, prescriptions for the drug have significantly increased in the US over the past decade. This article reviews best practices for prescribing benzodiazepines in primary care and explains how providers can best prevent and treat benzodiazepine use disorder and other harmful effects.

Clinical update on dementia with Lewy bodies for primary care NPs

Parish, Abby Luck; Kim, Jennifer

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(4):22-29, April 2023.

Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia in older adults. NPs in primary care must have a thorough understanding of this complex disease in order to ensure appropriate referrals, provide patient and caregiver education, and comanage this disease with other healthcare professionals.

Noninfectious causes of fever in adults

Steele, Gregory M.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Chastain, Daniel B.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(4):38-44, April 19, 2018.

Fever is a common clinical sign encountered in hospitalized patients and often represents the cardinal sign of infectious processes. However, a number of noninfectious etiologies causing fever should be considered prior to initiating broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Reducing unnecessary antibiotic use is crucial in an era of increasing resistance.

Pain management for patients with chronic kidney disease in the primary care setting

Lowe, Kevin M.; Robinson, Danny R. Jr.

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(1):18-26, January 2020.

Pain is routinely reported in patients with chronic kidney disease. Pain is often multifaceted, making the treatment of this complex patient population even more challenging. Understanding pain types as well as treatment options for these patients with pain is an important skillset for the primary care provider.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A conundrum for patients and healthcare providers

Cline, Holly M.; Einhardt, Adam

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(1):12-19, January 2022.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an underdiagnosed disorder of the autonomic nervous system. The median time to achieve correct diagnosis is 2 years and may take more than 10 years for some patients. Symptoms can be devastating to the daily life of patients and can result in long-term disability. Treatment availability is limited due to the need for further studies.

33rd Annual APRN Legislative Update: Unprecedented changes to APRN practice authority in unprecedented times

Phillips, Susanne J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(1):27-55, January 2021.

In a year unlike any other in recent history, healthcare workers, including advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), faced challenges and triumphs as the frontline in the battle against COVID-19. This 33rd Annual Legislative Update covers the scope of practice changes and legislative decisions that most impacted APRNs across the US in 2020.

32nd Annual APRN Legislative Update: Improving access to high-quality, safe, and effective healthcare

Phillips, Susanne J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(1):28-55, January 2020.

The Annual Legislative Update describes recent legislative and regulatory changes to practice, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority that have the most impact on NPs and other advanced practice registered nurses across the country.

Care for the patient with hip pain

Kearns, Gary A.; Moore, Amy Karen; Munger, Larry; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(5):21-28, May 2023.

Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects adults in the primary care setting. The NP must understand the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options for patients with hip pain. Proper care of these patients often involves conservative medical management and coordination with physical therapy.

Using telehealth for diabetes self-management in underserved populations

Ju, Hsiao-Hui

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(11):26-33, November 2020.

Diabetes self-management is a complex process and central to well-being of patients with this chronic disorder. A patient-centered telehealth program may potentially meet needs of those in underserved populations to reduce socioeconomic disparities. Achieving this goal requires a focused concentration on health behaviors and practices of individuals in underserved populations.

Understanding the most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care: Abdominal pain

Rogers, Julia; Schallmo, Marianne

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(1):13-20, January 2021.

Abdominal pain affects nearly every person at some point in their lifetime. Abdominal pain may be vague or referred, often making the diagnosis elusive and challenging for NPs. This article reviews the pathophysiology of abdominal pain in relation to clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, and treatment.

Implementing trauma-informed care across the lifespan to acknowledge childhood adverse event prevalence: best clinical practices

Zarnello, Lisa

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(2):14-21, February 2023.

Adverse childhood experiences and toxic stress in childhood have been correlated with negative physical and mental health outcomes, poor social outcomes, and early mortality. Understanding the prevalence of trauma and its effects on lifelong health outcomes has been the focus of an evolving concept of care delivery known as trauma-informed care (TIC). The aim of this article is to provide a general overview of TIC and to review current best-practice recommendations and models of care, thereby providing NPs with practical ways to empower a trauma-informed approach to care in their daily practice setting.

Vesicular hand dermatitis

Sobering, Geraldine; Dika, Cheryl

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(11):33-37, November 2018.

Vesicular hand dermatitis is a type of eczema involving the fingers, hands, and sometimes the feet. It is common in primary care, requiring prompt treatment to prevent chronicity. The cause is often unknown, making the condition challenging to treat. Management consists of avoiding irritants and using emollients and topical corticosteroids.

Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options

Well, Danielle

The Nurse Practitioner. 38(10):22-31, October 10, 2013.

Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the sebaceous follicle. The cause is multifactorial, and both adolescents and adults can be affected. Acne is associated with a significant financial burden and considerable psychological distress. Treatment options are reviewed in this article, including over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and in-office procedures.

Point-of-care ultrasound: An emerging clinical tool to enhance physical assessment

Fraleigh, Courteney D.M.; Duff, Elsie

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(8):14-20, August 2022.

Point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) is a cost-effective diagnostic technology that, with training, is accessible, portable, and a convenient diagnostic modality to complement physical assessments. PoCUS is beneficial in that it can reduce the number of imaging tests required, while also mitigating barriers to healthcare for rural and remote communities.

Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine disorders

Metzger, Robert L.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(8):30-37, August 2019.

Neck pain from cervical spine disorders is the second-leading cause of musculoskeletal disorders. Neck pain can exist alone or with the presence of upper extremity symptoms. This review of evidence-based guidelines assists the provider in identifying and treating various cervical disorders.

A practical guide to vitiligo differential diagnoses in primary care

Delgado, Patricia; Crumpton, Kristen

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(11):29-36, November 2021.

Primary care providers often encounter different types of pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo. This article arms the provider with the most common vitiligo differential diagnoses, with key findings and tips to identify specific hypopigmentary diseases. Readers will be better prepared to provide safe and effective care and recommend referrals to appropriate specialties.

Antihypertensive therapy in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis

El Hussein, Mohamed Toufic; Harvey, Giuliana; Bueckert, Alexi

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(9):14-22, September 2021.

Patients with aortic stenosis are at risk for developing hypertension. This article provides an overview of antihypertensives used in patients with aortic stenosis, focusing on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and vasodilators.

Bladder cancer: Risk factors, diagnosis, and management

Farling, Kristen Burns

The Nurse Practitioner. 42(3):26-33, March 7, 2017.

Bladder cancer is the most common genitourinary cancer in the United States. Symptoms of bladder cancer mimic those of a urinary tract infection, which can delay timely diagnosis. This article reviews the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer along with management options to safely care for this patient population.

Loneliness in adults: Evidence-based research and interventions for NPs

Pearson, Tamera

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(9):26-34, September 2019.

Loneliness is a complex psychophysiologic concept, a health risk factor, and a worrisome trend across the globe. This article reviews the latest research on the negative health effects associated with loneliness. Evidence-based NP interventions aimed at improving patients' perceived social connections are also explored.

Pulmonary function testing for the primary care nurse practitioner

Smith, Whitney; Chinnis, Simone; Durham, Catherine; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(12):14-20, December 2021.

Knowledge of which pulmonary function tests are commonly performed in primary care and interpretation of their results is integral for the diagnosis, care, and management of those with pulmonary symptoms. This article provides an overview of the most common pulmonary function tests and interpretation of their results.

Tailoring the mental health assessment to older adults

Davies, Tracy Lynn

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(1):10-18, January 2023.

This article discusses selected considerations for mental health assessment in older adults. Adopting a biopsychosocial model and trauma-informed approach to care creates a safe structure for a more comprehensive assessment. Selecting appropriate tools to improve diagnostic reasoning sets the foundation for further workup and tailored interventions.

How NPs can help expand telehealth services

Rincon, Teresa A.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(11):30-35, November 2019.

Consumers of healthcare services are demanding more convenient and accessible options to care. Technologic advancements can support this demand, but telehealth knowledge is lacking. This article will describe the current state of telehealth and examine the role that NPs can play in furthering its adoption.

31st Annual APRN Legislative Update: Improving state practice authority and access to care

Phillips, Susanne J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(1):27-55, January 2019.

The Annual Legislative Update describes recent legislative and regulatory changes to practice, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority that have the most impact on NPs and other advanced practice registered nurses across the country.

Pediatric hypertension: A guideline update

Benenson, Irina; Waldron, Frederick A.; Porter, Sallie

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(5):16-23, May 2020.

The prevalence of pediatric hypertension is growing. Hypertension during childhood remains a major risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events later in life. NPs should be aware of current guidelines on screening, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension in children to improve care for this patient population.

30th Annual APRN Legislative Update: Improving access to healthcare one state at a time

Phillips, Susanne J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(1):27-54, January 15, 2018.

The Annual Legislative Update describes recent legislative changes to practice, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority that have the most impact on NPs and other advanced practice nurses across the country.

Therapeutic use of cannabis in the US

Klein, Tracy A.; Clark, Carey S.

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(12):16-25, December 2022.

NPs are likely to encounter patients using cannabis with therapeutic intent, with or without legal authorization. During the clinical history and assessment process, NPs need to engage in frank discussion about cannabis therapeutics, including the risks and benefits, evidence for use, dosing considerations, potential drug interactions, and harm reduction.

Approach to a patient with hypertensive urgency in the primary care setting

Benenson, Irina; Bradshaw, Molly J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(10):50-55, October 2021.

Patients who present to an outpatient office with hypertensive urgency—or severely elevated BP without evidence of acute target organ damage—can be safely treated in the ambulatory setting by initiating or reestablishing long-acting oral antihypertensive medications, addressing medication nonadherence, and reviewing precipitating factors.

DNP student mentorship: Empowering students and nurse practitioner organizations

Higgins, Karen; Newby, Olivia

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(4):42-47, April 2020.

NP organizations can complement academic programs by providing DNP students with experiential learning and mentorship. This article focuses on a regional NP organization that provided mentoring to DNP students who joined their leadership board. Students gained leadership, advocacy, policy, and advanced practice experience, and the organization experienced growth and innovation.

Hypertension management options: 2017 guideline

Scordo, Kristine Anne

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(6):33-37, June 11, 2018.

The new hypertension guideline lowers the definition of high BP to 130/80 mm Hg. This means that millions of adults will now be diagnosed with hypertension and that many of those taking antihypertensive drugs are not at goal. The challenge is to communicate the change, the strength of evidence behind the change, and the options available to patients. Healthcare providers must be knowledgeable of the new guideline and ready to meet this challenge.

Health disparities in American Indians/Alaska Natives: Implications for nurse practitioners

Carron, Rebecca

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(6):26-32, June 2020.

American Indians/Alaska Natives experience significant health disparities in many areas including metabolic and mental health disorders. NPs have the opportunity to understand the underlying causes of these disparities and provide health interventions that promote wellness.

Autism spectrum disorder in primary care

Weill, Victoria A.; Zavodny, Stefanie; Souders, Margaret C.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(2):21-28, February 16, 2018.

Nurse practitioners working in the primary care setting will commonly see children with autism spectrum disorder. It is important for clinicians to be vigilant for subtle developmental signs that can lead to early identification and diagnosis. This article presents information on assessment, screening, the responsibilities of coordinating services, and ways to support families.

Fibromyalgia: A clinical update

St. John, Amanda W.; Aebischer, Jonathan H.; Friend, Ronald; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(4):20-30, April 2022.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain disorder commonly encountered by advanced practice registered nurses in primary and specialty care. Knowing how to recognize FM and its multiple pain and nonpain symptoms facilitates diagnosis. We propose a four-step approach to diagnosis that can reduce costly referrals and treatment delays, and describe evidence-based interventions.

A review of knee pain in adolescent females

Lipman, Rachel; John, Rita Marie

The Nurse Practitioner. 40(7):28-36, July 15, 2015.

Primary care practitioners are in a position to educate patients and parents of the risk factors that may increase the incidence of knee pain in adolescent females. This article highlights patellofemoral pain syndrome, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and meniscal tears. This review encourages nurse practitioners to identify potential risk factors for injury.

Evidence-based updates to the 2021 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines: Part 1: Background, pathophysiology, and emerging treatments

Lehman, Karen D.

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(11):24-30, November 2022.

Sepsis identification and treatment has changed significantly over the last few decades. Despite this, sepsis is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This first of a two-part series reviews the history of modern sepsis and presents new research in pathophysiology, treatment, and postsepsis care.

Understanding the most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care: Acute pharyngitis

Rogers, Julia; Eastland, Taryn

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(5):48-54, May 2021.

This is a 12-part series on the most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care. The article discusses the pathophysiologic processes of acute pharyngitis as well as the clinical manifestations and treatments and how they are linked to disease pathogenesis.

Menopause: A primary care perspective

Ellington, Kelly; Link, Tamara; Saccomano, Scott J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 47(2):16-23, February 2022.

Menopause signifies permanent cessation of ovarian function and the end of a woman's reproductive potential. Menopausal transition plays a major role in many symptoms common in middle age and may contribute to chronic conditions and disorders of aging. An evidence-based plan of care improves outcomes, enhancing quality of life.

Adverse childhood experiences and implementing trauma-informed primary care

Esden, Jana L.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(12):10-21, December 2018.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) include exposures such as abuse and household dysfunction. These exposures are associated with long-term sequelae and unfavorable health outcomes in adulthood. NPs working in primary care can help to reduce the impact of ACEs in adulthood by identifying individuals with these experiences and implementing trauma-informed care strategies.

Addressing transgender patients' barriers to access care

Rowe, Denise; Ng, Yeow Chye; O'Keefe, Louise C.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(6):30-38, June 2019.

The transgender population faces several barriers to accessing quality medical care in the US healthcare system. This article examines the challenges that prevent this marginalized group from obtaining high-quality healthcare services and discusses how NP advocacy can help create a welcoming environment for transgender patients.

Primary care management of the liver transplant patient

Chaney, Amanda

The Nurse Practitioner. 39(12):26-33, December 13, 2014.

There are over 65,000 people in the United States who have received a liver transplant. In primary care practice, nurse practitioners must be aware of the special considerations for this population.

Screening for diabetic kidney disease in primary care: A quality improvement initiative

Deem, Michelle; Rice, Jennifer; Valentine, Kathleen; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(4):34-41, April 2020.

Gaps in care currently exist between diabetic kidney disease (DKD) guidelines and diabetes management in primary care settings. This article explores whether a local Federally Qualified Health Center could improve rates of screening for microalbuminuria, diagnosis of DKD, and treatment of the disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Mind & body practices in the treatment of adolescent anxiety

Fulweiler, Bernadette; John, Rita Marie

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(8):36-43, August 2018.

Although anxiety is the most common mental health condition among adolescents in the United States, the current standards of practice for treatment are expensive, may be difficult to obtain, and potentially harmful. Even though mind and body practices show great promise in the treatment of adolescent anxiety, the associated financial constraints, lack of education, and structural barriers can hinder the integration of these practices into primary care.

The impact of systemic racism on health outcomes among Black women: Recommendations for change

James-Conterelli, Sascha; Dunkley, Daihnia; McIntosh, Jennifer T.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(2):23-32, February 2023.

Black women suffer disproportionately from healthcare inequities in comparison to their White counterparts. Using the Public Health Critical Race framework, this article explores the lasting effects of systemic racism on the health outcomes of Black women across the lifespan. A case study and specific strategies are presented to examine how clinicians, educators, and policymakers can work with Black women to mitigate and eliminate health inequities.

Managing the airway in acute care patients

Meissen, Heather; Johnson, Laura

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(7):23-29, July 2018.

Understanding how to assess, secure, and manage an airway can save a patient's life in an emergent situation. The NP must assess patients in respiratory distress quickly and in an organized manner to implement life-saving treatment and stabilize the patient before further decline occurs. This article will briefly describe the basics of airway management.

Appropriate coding and billing in occupational health

Nyhus, Julie E.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(10):18-26, October 2021.

Occupational health medicine plays a critical role in prevention, recognition, and treatment of injuries and illnesses of workers. This article explores commonly billed occupational injuries and illnesses.

ADHD: From childhood to young adulthood

Wesemann, Daniel; Van Cleve, Susan N.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(3):8-15, March 12, 2018.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 11% of children between the ages of 4 and 17 years. This article discusses performing a comprehensive assessment for ADHD, the use of validated tools to make an accurate diagnosis, physical exam findings that may be suggestive of certain conditions, and ADHD treatment options.

Rethinking breastfeeding management: A patient-centered approach based on new guidelines

Scott, Allison; Kirkland, Tracie

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(3):11-19, March 2023.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. Nationally, however, breastfeeding rates are low, with Black infants among the least likely to be breastfed. The updated AAP breastfeeding policy guidelines emphasize an urgent need for a patient-centered approach to cultivate awareness of breastfeeding benefits and promote equitable care.

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) of HIV among adults

El Hussein, Mohamed Toufic; Malyshev, Ivan

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(5):39-47, May 2023.

In the last several decades, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become an effective tool for the prevention of HIV transmission. The continuous evolution of antiretrovirals and the associated update of clinical practice guidelines create a challenge for NPs caring for patients exposed to HIV. This article provides a comprehensive overview of HIV and step-by-step guidance for NPs treating patients who have been exposed.

Mpox (monkeypox): Diagnosis, prevention, and management in adults

Jarrell, Lynda; Perryman, Kashiris

The Nurse Practitioner. 48(4):13-20, April 2023.

Mpox (formerly “monkeypox”) is a viral zoonosis that presents similarly to smallpox but is less contagious and causes less severe disease. Mpox may be transmitted from infected animals to humans through direct contact or a scratch or bite. Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct contact, respiratory droplets, and fomites. Two vaccines, JYNNEOS ® and ACAM2000®, are currently available for postexposure prophylaxis as well as for prevention in certain populations at high risk for mpox. Most cases of mpox are self-limited; however, tecovirimat, brincidofovir, and cidofovir are available as treatments for at-risk populations.

Treatment update: Outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia

Esden, Jana

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(3):16-25, March 2020.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and a primary cause of hospitalization nationwide. A recent guideline update from the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America provides evidence-based recommendations for managing adults with community-acquired pneumonia in the outpatient setting.

Asymptomatic GBS bacteriuria during antenatal visits: To treat or not to treat?

Rosenberger, Kelly D.; Seibert, Amy; Hormig, Sara

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(7):18-25, July 2020.

Inconsistencies persist regarding the efficacy of treating asymptomatic group B Streptococcus bacteriuria in pregnant individuals with colony counts below 105 (100,000) CFU/mL. Despite these discrepancies, treatment still occurs. This article examines the role of screening and treatment, evidence-based guidelines, and practice patterns to provide clarification and resolve local practice disparities.