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Infectious Disease

  • Creator:   The Nurse Practitioner
  • Updated:   4/5/2021
  • Contains:  64 items
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Beliefs related to Pap smear intention among Jamaicans: A qualitative research study

Linton, Denise

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(3):51-55, March 2021.

Globally, most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer do not obtain regular screening with the Pap smear/test. Women in developing countries have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Therefore, a qualitative research study was conducted to determine the referents, and salient and control beliefs related to Pap smear/ test intention among Jamaicans.

COVID-19 and telehealth: Issues facing healthcare in a pandemic

Fant, Catherine; Adelman, Deborah S.; Summer, Georgianne A.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(3):16-19, March 2021.

Providing safe nonemergent care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been challenging for NPs. This article, the first of a three-part series, will discuss telehealth and telemedicine and provide a brief history of the two. The benefits, challenges, and temporary changes due to COVID-19 will also be addressed.

Risk of misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis with COVID-19: A Syndemic Approach

Muhrer, Jill C.

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(2):44-49, February 2021.

Misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis are common problems in healthcare and are typically related to patient, provider, and socioeconomic factors. A syndemics model of COVID-19 is used to analyze the synergistic relationship between diseases and influences that impact patients' living conditions and health. NPs can use this approach to promote patient safety and equitable healthcare.

Elevated liver function tests in COVID-19: Causes, clinical evidence, and potential treatments

Clark, Ricketta; Waters, Bradford; Stanfill, Ansley Grimes

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(1):21-26, January 2021.

COVID-19 causes severe respiratory and multiorgan failure, including liver damage and elevated transaminase levels. This article addresses the potential causes of liver function abnormalities in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and management approaches for NPs focusing on preventing and alleviating liver injury.

Understanding the most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care: Abdominal pain

Rogers, Julia; Schallmo, Marianne

The Nurse Practitioner. 46(1):13-20, January 2021.

Abdominal pain affects nearly every person at some point in their lifetime. Abdominal pain may be vague or referred, often making the diagnosis elusive and challenging for NPs. This article reviews the pathophysiology of abdominal pain in relation to clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, and treatment.

COVID-19: Epidemiology and clinical practice implications

Rogge, Mary Madeline; Gautam, Bibha

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(12):26-34, December 2020.

In 2019, a novel coronavirus infection was detected in humans. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread around the world, often confusing and contradictory information about the disease proliferated rapidly. This article reviews what is currently known about COVID-19, including transmission, epidemiology, immunologic responses, clinical manifestations, and disease management.

Understanding the most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care: Urinary tract infections

Rogers, Julia

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(11):35-40, November 2020.

This article, one of 12 in a series on most commonly billed diagnoses in primary care, provides a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiologic processes related to urinary tract infections (UTIs). The clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, treatments, and billing codes associated with UTIs will be described.

Infectious complications of newer agents in the fight against diabetes

Stover, Kayla R.; Hugh, Emily; Sherman, Justin J.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(11):17-24, November 2020.

Infectious complications have been reported with antidiabetic medications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have been associated with upper respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have been associated with lower limb amputations, urinary tract infections, genital mycotic infections, and Fournier gangrene.

Community-associated MRSA among Indigenous children in remote settings: Best practices for NPs

Campbell, Rhonda; Martin, Donna; Pierce, Darlene; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(10):34-40, October 2020.

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a major public health concern for Indigenous pediatric populations worldwide. It is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in this demographic. This article reviews the literature and presents an evidence-based algorithm for the assessment and management of CA-MRSA among Indigenous children in remote settings.

Recurrent bacterial vaginosis

Ellington, Kelly; Saccomano, Scott J.

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(10):27-32, October 2020.

Bacterial vaginosis recurrence is common but can lead to recurrent bothersome symptoms associated with infection. This article reviews evidence-based options for practicing providers to improve patient outcomes. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Adequate treatment is essential to help avoid adverse patient outcomes.

Implementation science: Changing practice in oral health

Berger, Carol; Tokac, Umit; Fish, Anne F.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(7):27-34, July 2020.

Caries remain the most common preventable chronic childhood disease. One state oral health program including fluoride varnish showed a decrease in presence of decay and improvement in overall oral health; however, early childhood caries did not improve. Implementation of an oral health preventive program during well-child medical visits may address this gap.

Guiding patients to appropriate vaccination during pregnancy

Heavey, Elizabeth

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(6):19-24, June 2020.

This article focuses on the two universally recommended vaccines during pregnancy—Tdap and influenza—and how NPs can advocate for the appropriate vaccination of this patient population.

New drug treatment options for HIV antiretroviral therapy

Kwong, Jeffrey

The Nurse Practitioner. 45(3):28-38, March 2020.

Current treatments for patients with HIV are not only effective at controlling viral replication but are also associated with a more favorable adverse reaction profile, may often be taken once daily, and are increasingly available in combination single-tablet regimens. This article provides an overview and prescribing considerations for several primary drugs currently recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services.

Drug updates and approvals: 2019 in review

Crump, Lauren Hartsell; Benfield, Miranda; Ramey, Caleb; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(12):21-32, December 2019.

In 2019, the FDA approved several new drugs for use in primary care. This article highlights the following new drugs: risankizumab-rzaa (Skyrizi); halobetasol and tazarotene (Duobrii); dolutegravir and lamivudine (Dovato); romosozumab-aqqg (Evenity); brexanolone (Zulresso); solriamfetol (Sunosi); aclidinium and formoterol(Duaklir Pressair); and siponimod (Mayzent).

Increasing influenza vaccination acceptance in the homeless: A quality improvement project

Beers, Lorraine; Filter, Marilyn; McFarland, Marilyn

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(11):48-54, November 2019.

The US homeless population is predisposed to serious complications of influenza with increased likelihood of hospitalization and death. This quality improvement project sought to increase influenza vaccination in the homeless population of a rural area in the Midwest and improve provider knowledge of risks and preventive care responsibilities.

Measles: A clinician's guide to a reemerging disease

Stinchfield, Patricia Ann

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(11):37-41, November 2019.

Measles has reemerged in the US for a variety of reasons, including misinformation spread by antivaccination advocates and imported cases from countries where infected children may be too young for immunization. Prompt diagnosis and isolation can help reduce measles transmission.

Eradicating hepatitis C virus: The APRN's role

Pozza, Renee; McCoy-Hill, Catherine; Hall, Katherine; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(11):16-27, November 2019.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease. The World Health Organization has called for the global elimination of HCV by 2030. NPs can significantly expand the availability of community-based providers and bridge gaps in HCV treatment to assist in eradicating this curable virus.

Practical points for applying herpes zoster vaccine recommendations

Brogie, Jackie D.; Rumph, Joshua H.; Chaplin, Michelle D.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(9):43-47, September 2019.

The recombinant zoster vaccine (Shingrix) was approved to help combat the incidence of shingles in patients age 50 years and older and the CDC now recommends it over the zoster vaccine live (Zostavax). This article highlights practical considerations to help clinicians appropriately apply the most recent vaccine recommendations to their patients.

Effective treatments for head lice

Imboden, Annie

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(9):36-42, September 2019.

Head lice is a parasitic infestation common in children. Proper management is essential to treat lice in a safe, convenient, cost-effective, and efficacious manner. School lice policies are often antiquated and can stigmatize the child and family. Evidence-based care guidelines may significantly help families minimize the stress of lice.

Syphilis: A growing concern

Harmon, Elizabeth D.; Robertson, Eric Wayne

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(8):21-28, August 2019.

Since a brief low in 1998, reported cases of syphilis have continued to grow in the US. As primary care providers, NPs are at the forefront of the battle to eliminate syphilis. This article reviews the stages of this infection, diagnosis nuances, and treatment guidelines.

HIV and aging: A primer for NPs

Kwong, Jeffrey; Reyes, Darcel; Murphy, Nancy; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(5):32-41, May 2019.

Estimates indicate 70% of all individuals with HIV will be age 50 or older by 2030. Chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, malignancies, neurocognitive disorders, and osteopenia or osteoporosis, occur more frequently in patients with HIV and have become the leading cause of morbidity in this population. NPs play an integral role in helping this population age healthfully.

Improving vaccination rates in older adults: A quality improvement project

Wright, Wendy L.; Bruns, Debra Pettit; Feeney, Adele Susan; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(4):40-49, April 2019.

Adults age 65 or older are at increased risk for acute and chronic diseases. Patients in this group who are up to date with all CDC-recommended vaccinations can reduce morbidity and mortality. This article discusses a quality improvement project across four NP-owned primary care clinics in which all clinical staff received an educational intervention focused on best vaccination practices and Medicare billing strategies. This project yielded improved vaccination rates in the older adult patient population over a 3-month period.

Infection prevention and control core practices: A roadmap for nursing practice

Carrico, Ruth M.; Garrett, Hudson; Balcom, Dawn; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(3):50-55, March 2019.

The CDC continues to stress the urgent issue of increasing microbial resistance. The organization recently joined forces with the American Nurses Association to bring awareness to this issue through an approach that prevents inappropriate antibiotic use and stresses infection prevention.

Antimicrobial prescribing in older adults

Brandburg, Gloria L.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(2):42-48, February 2019.

Determining the appropriate use and selection of antimicrobials in older adults can be challenging. Age-related physiologic changes, multiple comorbidities, and polypharmacy can make prescribing antimicrobials complicated and the effectiveness of therapy unpredictable.

Recommended screenings for chlamydia and gonorrhea: A Canadian guidelines review

O'Byrne, Patrick

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(2):35-41, February 2019.

Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and both are increasing in incidence. Because these STIs are often asymptomatic and found at extragenital sites, such as the pharynx and rectum, it is important that clinicians know when and how to screen for them.

Evidence-based updates to the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Guidelines and clinical implications

Lehman, Karen D.

The Nurse Practitioner. 44(2):26-33, February 2019.

Despite numerous advances in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis and its treatment, sepsis morbidity and mortality remain high. The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines incorporated the latest research to formulate new sepsis diagnoses and updated treatment recommendations. This article reviews how to manage patients with sepsis and provides insight into the 2016 guidelines, updates, and suggestions.

Drug updates and approvals: 2018 in review

Mospan, Cortney; Mospan, Geoffrey; Byland, Emily; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(12):23-32, December 2018.

In 2018, the FDA approved several new drugs for use in primary care. This article highlights the following new drugs: bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy); doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Bonjesta); erenumab-aooe (Aimovig); lofexidine hydrochloride (Lucemyra); tezacaftor and ivacaftor (Symdeko); and tildrakizumab-asmn (Ilumya).

Variable clinical presentations of babesiosis

Paparone, Pamela; Paparone, Philip W.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(10):48-54, October 2018.

Human babesiosis continues to spread in multiple regions of the US. It is transmitted by Ixodes species ticks, as are Lyme disease and anaplasmosis. Its variable clinical presentations, together with serologic detection limitations, require that a high index of clinical suspicion be present for prompt diagnosis. This article discusses case examples showing the wide range of symptoms and presentations that are possible with babesiosis.

Newest lipoglycopeptides for the management of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

Bell, Allison M.; King, S. Travis; Barber, Katie E.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(10):31-37, October 2018.

Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are some of the most commonly encountered infections worldwide. Hospitalizations as a result of ABSSSIs are associated with high mortality. This article discusses the role of oritavancin and dalbavancin, the two newest lipoglycopeptides, in the context of the other available I.V. infusion standard therapy options.

The ABCs of RSV

Krause, Christine I.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(9):20-26, September 2018.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common viral infection affecting many children in the United States. This seasonal virus is the leading cause of hospitalization of infants and neonates. This article reviews the current recommendations for diagnostic testing, treatment options, and prevention of RSV.

Managing sexually transmitted infections: Beyond the 2015 guidelines

Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Curry, Kim; Chandler, Rasheeta; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(8):28-34, August 2018.

Guidelines for the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are updated periodically while new science is continuously developed. This article provides recent updates on managing STIs.

Recognizing and treating Lyme disease

Saccomano, Scott J.; Hrelic, Debra A.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(8):13-21, August 2018.

Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States. After initial antibiotic treatment for patients with Lyme disease, ongoing symptoms that may persist have considerable long-term impact on healthcare costs. Posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome is characterized by a host of chronic symptoms that can leave patients physically and mentally disabled.

The human papilloma vaccine: A time for NP leadership

Hardwicke, Robin L.; Benjamins, Laura J.; Grimes, Richard M.

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(7):49-55, July 2018.

The human papilloma virus (HPV) causes approximately 30,700 annual cancer cases of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oral cavity, and anus. Nurse practitioners can use their unique relationships with patients to advocate for the HPV vaccine. The purpose of this article is to update NPs on current knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine while providing appropriate information necessary for counseling patients and parents.

Understanding tuberculosis in an era of global travel

Benkert, Ramona A.; Rayford, Ann

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(2):47-54, February 16, 2018.

With the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), it is imperative that healthcare providers have the necessary skills to manage the specialized issues of prevention, recognition, and treatment of TB. The case study in this article illustrates these skills for NPs and other advanced practice providers.

Periodontal disease in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Wooton, Angela K.; Melchior, Lynne M.; Coan, Lorinda L.; More

The Nurse Practitioner. 43(2):30-35, February 16, 2018.

Collaborative efforts between health team members can advance early detection of children with elevated blood glucose levels, preventing hyperglycemia and periodontal diseases. Rates of obesity are increasing in children, impacting the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Collaborative care between nurse practitioners and dental hygienists can detect, prevent, and treat periodontal disease in children.

Creator: The Nurse Practitioner
Duration: 11:07
The Nurse Practitioner 
In this episode of The Nurse Practitioner Podcast, Dr. Stephen A. Ferrara discusses influenza.
Creator: The Nurse Practitioner
Duration: 10:06
The Nurse Practitioner 

In this episode of The Nurse Practitioner Podcast, Jeffrey Kwong, DNP, MPH, AGPCNP-BC, FAANP, FAAN discusses COVID-19.

Recorded on 3/25/2020

Creator: The Nurse Practitioner
Duration: 14:07
The Nurse Practitioner 
In this episode of The Nurse Practitioner Podcast, Dr. Julia Rogers, DNP, RN, CNS, FNP-BC discusses pharyngitis.