INSTRUCTIONS Diagnosis and primary care management of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children
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Diagnosis and primary care management of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children
Purpose: To provide information on FSGS in children. Learning Objectives/Outcomes: After completing this continuing-education activity, you should be able to: 1. Examine the pathophysiology and epidemiology of FSGS and the clinical presentation of children who have this disease. 2. Select diagnostic testing strategies and treatment options for children with FSGS.
- There is a higher annual incidence of FSGS in persons with which ethnicity?
- Asian Americans
- Black Americans
- White Americans
- The most common type of FSGS is
- primary (idiopathic).
- high-penetrance genetic.
- Drug-associated FSGS may be caused by taking
- Which histologic subtype of FSGS has the worst prognosis with rapid progression to kidney failure?
- The most common presenting symptom of FSGS in children is asymptomatic
- Nephrotic syndrome in children is described as
- serum albumin more than 2.5 g/dL.
- more than 200 mg/dL total cholesterol.
- less than 1 g/m2 urine protein per day.
- At the time of FSGS onset, what symptom is present in almost half of patients?
- gross hematuria
- The ultimate diagnosis of FSGS depends on
- response to corticosteroid therapy.
- kidney biopsy findings.
- clinical presentation.
- Testing for the genes that may be responsible for FSGS can aid in
- anticipating symptoms specific to certain gene mutations.
- determining additional diagnostic testing that may be needed.
- recognizing patients at greater risk for FSGS reoccurrence after transplant.
- The standard of care for the treatment of patients with FSGS is
- renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers.
- mycophenolate mofetil.
- Lifestyle modifications for patients with FSGS include
- weight maintenance.
- potassium-rich diet.
- limiting physical activity.
- As noted in the article, persistent proteinuria can lead to a higher risk of
- diabetes mellitus.
- skeletal muscle wasting.
- cardiovascular disease.
- Because FSGS often presents as nephrotic syndrome, patients are treated empirically with oral corticosteroids for
- 9 days.
- 14 days.
- 4 to 6 weeks.
- Adverse reactions to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil include
- growth impairment.
- What drug is recommended as the first-line therapy for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome?
- monoclonal antibodies
- HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
- The authors report that there is a risk of developing malignancies with the use of
- In general, progression to ESRD occurs within
- 2 to 4 years.
- 5 to 10 years.
- 15 to 20 years.
- The first-line treatment for reoccurring FSGS is
- another kidney transplant.