INSTRUCTIONS Update on the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care
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Update on the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care
General Purpose: The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the 2014 ADA Standards of Medical Care. Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the demographics of and recommendations for the diagnosis of diabetes. 2. Select recommended approaches to prevention and control of diabetes.
- According to CDC estimates, what percentage of adults and children in the United States have diabetes?
- According to medical experts, which treatment approach is gaining importance?
- careful management of insulin options
- diet and exercise to avoid obesity
- primary prevention
- individualized care
- Secondary prevention is focused on
- reducing risk factors associated with diabetes.
- interrupting the process of the asymptomatic disease.
- preventing the development of diabetes.
- treating symptoms in addition to the underlying cause of the disease.
- Tertiary prevention refers to
- stabilizing or preventing the worsening of a symptomatic disease.
- managing the late-onset symptoms in addition to the underlying cause of the disease.
- managing the disease in a patient who is in an acute care setting for other reasons.
- treating the symptoms of end-stage diabetes mellitus.
- Which of the following has been accepted by the ADA to diagnose diabetes?
- 4-hour glucose tolerance test
- 5-hour OGTT
- nonfasting glucose load test
- 6.5% or greater glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level threshold
- Individuals who have certain types of anemias or hemoglobinopathies should be tested using
- 4-hour glucose tolerance test.
- 75-g OGTT.
- nonfasting plasma glucose.
- Individuals who have more than two autoantibodies for T1DM have which percentage likelihood of developing the disease in 10 years?
- The two basic categories of tertiary prevention are
- prevention of abnormal glucose levels and addressing comorbid conditions.
- managing insulin levels and promoting lifestyle changes.
- managing comorbid conditions and preventing diabetic neuropathies.
- control of blood glucose levels and promotion of healthy lifestyle.
- Female patients with T2DM taking insulin or insulin secretagogues should be educated about the
- need to abstain from drinking alcohol.
- benefits of drinking alcohol in preventing renal complications.
- potential for delayed hypoglycemia after drinking alcohol.
- need to limit alcohol drinks to two per day.
- Current guidelines suggest limiting monotherapy to how long for reaching A1C goals?
- 6 weeks
- 3 months
- 4 to 5 months
- 6 months
- Education of patients with diabetes should include
- advantages of frequent changes to medication regimens.
- discussion of the progressive nature of diabetes.
- the inevitability of the development of comorbidities.
- need to limit traveling and other leisure activities.
- The most extensive changes in the 2014 ADA Standards of Medical Care involve
- medication management.
- management of comorbidities.
- medical nutritional therapy.
- secondary prevention.
- Which statement about fat intake for the patient with diabetes is accurate?
- Patients with diabetes should avoid all fatty foods.
- The ideal amount of suggested daily fat intake has been lowered by 10 g.
- The quality of fat intake is more important than the quantity.
- Over-the-counter long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplements are effective substitutes for dietary fats.
- Current recommendations for insulin during inpatient hospital stays
- strongly discourage sliding scale insulin dosing.
- strongly discourage physiologic insulin therapy.
- advocate calculating basal insulin doses on carbohydrate levels in meals.
- encourage insulin dosing based on premeal glucose levels for T1DM.
- In patients with T1DM, the intake of dietary sodium is associated with
- the development of diabetic retinopathy.
- exacerbation of diabetic comorbidities.
- all-cause mortality and end-stage kidney disease.
- the need for increased dosages of insulin.
- Current ADA nutrition guidelines recommend that all adults with diabetes reduce salt intake to less than
- 1,000 mg/d.
- 1,200 mg/d.
- 1,500 mg/d.
- 2,300 mg/d.
- Which of the following is not a factor associated with increasing cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy?
- length of time individual has had diabetes
- level of hyperglycemia
- In a T1DM patient with no previous evidence of retinopathy, the next recommended eye exam should be scheduled for
- 1 year.
- 2 years.
- 3 years.
- 5 years.