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Acne vulgaris

A review of causes and treatment options

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doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000435478.24330.93
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INSTRUCTIONS Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options


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Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options

General Purpose: The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information on the etiology and management of acne vulgaris. Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Identify the etiology of acne vulgaris. 2. Select treatment options for acne vulgaris.

  1. What is the primary cause of acne vulgaris?
    1. follicular degeneration
    2. decreased sebum secretion
    3. follicular degeneration and increased sebum secretion
    4. increased sebum secretion and follicular plugging
  2. Appropriate treatment of acne vulgaris is determined by the
    1. size of the lesions.
    2. severity and characteristics of the lesions.
    3. patient's age.
    4. patient's motivation to adhere to treatment.
  3. The microcomedo refers to
    1. blockage of the follicular canal.
    2. distention of the follicle.
    3. a firm, elevated white or yellow papule.
    4. a blackhead.
  4. Which statement aboutP.acnesis accurate?
    1. It is normal flora and causes hyperkeratosis of the follicular lining.
    2. It causes the pus found in comedones.
    3. It contributes to the inflammation and irritation associated with acne.
    4. It is responsible for the scarring associated with acne.
  5. Which of the following statements about hormones is true?
    1. A derivative of estrogen stimulates sebaceous gland size.
    2. Females tend to experience a flare in acne when menstruation begins.
    3. Acne severity correlates with the level of sex hormones secreted.
    4. Secretion of sex hormones peaks in late adolescence.
  6. Inflammatory papules, pustules, and cysts
    1. are more responsive to treatment than noninflammatory lesions.
    2. are often followed by hyperpigmentation that lasts for weeks or months.
    3. are more common than noninflammatory lesions.
    4. can be avoided if noninflammatory lesions are treated quickly.
  7. Most acne treatments work by
    1. opening plugged follicles.
    2. reducing the production of sebum.
    3. decreasing androgen levels.
    4. decreasing bacterial load or breaking down the comedo.
  8. Patient instructions should include
    1. avoiding the overuse of acne products.
    2. using an astringent cleanser to remove grease and debris from the face.
    3. avoiding moisturizes as they interfere with topical acne medications.
    4. scrubbing vigorously to remove debris that clogs facial pores.
  9. Benzoyl peroxide is most effective for treatment of
    1. inflammatory acne.
    2. open comedones.
    3. closed comedones.
    4. noninflammatory lesions.
  10. The most conventional topical antibiotic prescribed is
    1. cefadroxil.
    2. tetracycline.
    3. clindamycin.
    4. cephalexin.
  11. Which medication is associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome?
    1. dapsone
    2. sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim
    3. benzoyl peroxide
    4. sodium sulfacetamide
  12. Topical retinoids are first-line therapy for acne because they
    1. produce results rapidly.
    2. are gentle to the skin.
    3. also serve as an effective sunscreen.
    4. target the micromedo.
  13. Which of the following medications shows greater effectiveness in females?
    1. tazarotene
    2. dapsone
    3. azelaic acid
    4. isotretinoin
  14. It is essential that female patients not get pregnant while taking
    1. adapalene
    2. dapsone
    3. azelaic acid
    4. isotretinoin
  15. Hormonal treatment of acne is
    1. appropriate only for females.
    2. most effective for males when started immediately following puberty.
    3. contraindicated in females with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    4. used to decrease estrogen levels.
  16. Which dietary supplement is bacteriostatic againstacnes?
    1. nicotinamide
    2. zinc
    3. copper
    4. folic acid
  17. Which statement about food and acne is correct?
    1. There is strong evidence that chocolate and fried foods are acne triggers.
    2. There is a strong correlation between milk consumption and increased acne lesions.
    3. Diets with a high glycemic index may increase androgen levels and sebum production.
    4. There is no scientific evidence that relates diet to the development of acne lesions.
  18. When treating severe acne, tazarotene is recommended to be added to the regimen
    1. at the beginning.
    2. in 2 weeks.
    3. in 4 weeks.
    4. in 6 weeks.
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