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Meningococcal Disease: Early recognition is vital to patient outcomes

doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000399640.83923.91
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INSTRUCTIONS Meningococcal Disease: Early recognition is vital to patient outcomes


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Meningococcal Disease: Early recognition is vital to patient outcomes

General Purpose: To provide NPs with generalized information regarding meningococcal disease. Learning Objectives: After reading the preceding article and taking this test, you will be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic tests used in meningococcal disease. 2. Explain meningococcal disease prevention and treatment recommendations.

1. The most frequent cause of meningitis in the United States is

a. Streptococcus pneumoniae

b. Streptococcus meningitidis

c. Neisseria meningitidis

d. Haemophilus influenzae type B

2. The highest rates of meningococcal disease occur in

a. children age less than 2 years.

b. school-aged children.

c. adolescents and young adults.

d. older adults.

3. The highest fatality rate (23.2%) from meningococcal disease is found among

a. children age less than 2 years.

b. school-aged children.

c. adolescents and young adults.

d. older adults.

4. Transmission of meningococcal disease occurs through

a. skin contact.

b. inhalation.

c. contaminated food.

d. blood.

5. Carriage of meningococcal disease is affected by all except

a. smoking.

b. gender.

c. intimate contact.

d. crowded environments.

6. Classic symptoms of meningitis are headache, fever, and

a. cough.

b. dizziness.

c. skin lesions.

d. nuchal rigidity.

7. When touched, the petechiae associated with meningococcemia

a. blanch.

b. do not blanch.

c. itch.

d. are painful.

8. Classic symptoms of meningococcal septicemia include fever and

a. petechial rash.

b. severe eye pain.

c. hypertension.

d. thirst.

9. The gold standard test for diagnosis of meningococcal disease is

a. a tissue biopsy.

b. a culture of normally sterile body fluid.

c. ultrasound.

d. computed tomography.

10. Which diagnostic test may be used to detect meningococcal disease in individuals pretreated with antibiotics?

a. biopsy

b. Gram stain

c. magnetic resonance imaging

d. PCR test

11. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of meningitis

a. are nonspecific.

b. require contrast.

c. show enhanced subdural spaces.

d. are specific for meningococcal disease.

12. Definitive treatment for meningococcal disease is

a. antibiotic therapy.

b. vaccination.

c. immunotherapy.

d. antiviral therapy.

13. Which is a primary drug recommended by the Infectious Disease Society of America for treatment of meningococcal disease?

a. aztreonam

b. cefotaxime

c. a fluoroquinolone

d. chloramphenicol

14. Once diagnosed and antibiotic therapy initiated, patients with meningococcal disease must be placed in droplet precaution isolation for

a. 12 hours.

b. 24 hours.

c. 48 hours.

d. 72 hours.

15. Which therapy is given to patients with adrenal hemorrhage?

a. dexamethasone

b. mannitol

c. fibrinogen

d. platelets

16. After identification of a meningococcal index case, chemoprophylaxis of close contacts should be initiated within

a. 24 hours.

b. 36 hours.

c. 48 hours.

d. 72 hours.

17. The goal of chemoprophylaxis is to

a. vaccinate against infection.

b. eliminate nasopharyngeal carriage.

c. control epidemics.

d. provide immediate protection for large populations.

18. Menactra is a vaccine recommended at routine health screenings for

a. toddlers.

b. preschoolers.

c. preadolescents.

d. older adults.



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