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Sonographic Evaluation of Diaphragmatic Dysfunction

Technique, Interpretation, and Clinical Applications

Dass, Chandra MBBS, DMRD*; Dako, Farouk MD, MPH; Simpson, Scott DO; Marchetti, Nathaniel DO§; Steiner, Robert MD§; Criner, Gerard MD§

doi: 10.1097/RTI.0000000000000436
Web Exclusive Content: Review Article

Diaphragmatic dysfunction is a potential cause of dyspnea that can lead to significant morbidity. The purpose of this review article is to provide readers with the essentials for performing diaphragm ultrasonography, image interpretation, and the technical limitations one needs to be aware of. Diaphragm ultrasonography is simple to perform and has proven to be an accurate and safe bedside modality, overcoming many of the traditional limitations of fluoroscopy.

Departments of *Radiology

§Thoracic Medicine and Surgery, Temple University

Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence to: Farouk Dako, MD, MPH, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, 3401 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (e-mail:

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