Cardiovascular imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease in patients with Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular defects in this population may affect a single component of the cardiovascular system or exist in combination with other anomalies, and, they may present early in life or remain occult into adulthood. Careful screening and surveillance imaging are necessary for the early detection and management of cardiovascular defects, especially in cases wherein early intervention may be necessary to prevent a serious cardiovascular outcome. It is critical that these patients are followed-up by specialists aware of their unique cardiovascular risk factors and that imaging examinations are interpreted by cardiovascular imagers familiar with the variety of anomalies that may be present and/or warrant imaging follow-up. Herein, we review common and uncommon cardiovascular anomalies associated with Turner syndrome and provide an image-based approach to analyzing key cardiothoracic findings that should be assessed in this patient population. Current imaging recommendations and guidelines for various anomalies will also be reviewed.
*Department of Radiology, Columbus Radiology/Radiology Partners, Columbus, OH
†Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Colorado
Departments of ‡Radiology
§Medicine and Pediatrics, Divisions of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Correspondence to: Christopher J.G. Sigakis, MD, 471 East Broad Street, Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).