The heart can manifest a spectrum of focal convexities that range from insignificant crypts and diverticula to clinically relevant aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. The distinction of a clinically significant lesion from a minor focal convexity can be challenging. This article outlines the various types of focal convexities on the basis of location within the heart and discusses unique morphologic and functional features to further characterize these entities. We also highlight the most critical clinical consequences of cardiac aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms such as thromboembolic events, aneurysm ruptures, intracardiac shunting, hemopericardium, and arrhythmias.
Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Present address: Sagar Amin, MD, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road, NE Suite D112, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Correspondence to: Sagar Amin, MD, Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).