Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic tic disorders are clinically heterogenous and cause physical discomfort, social difficulties, and emotional distress. In addition to tics, TS patients have a variety of behavioral comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. TS treatment is multidisciplinary, involving behavioral therapy, oral medications, and botulinum toxin injections.
Relevant studies on pharmacological and surgical treatment options for TS and other chronic tic disorders, their limitations and current recommendations were reviewed using the PubMed search till April 2, 2018. Besides, the reference lists of the retrieved publications were manually searched to explore other relevant studies. This review aims to discuss the progress in pharmacological and surgical treatment options for TS and other chronic tic disorders.
Both typical and atypical antipsychotic agents are mainstays of pharmacological treatment of TS and other chronic tic disorder patients; however, their use is limited by serious side effects considering their potential of dopamine blockade. Because of the phenotypic variability, no medication has proven effective for all persons with TS and other chronic tic disorders. Botulinum toxin has emerged as a good therapeutic option, especially for focal and dystonic tics. But, their uses are limited by lack of sufficient evidence and high cost. Surgical treatment is considered in medically refractory and severely disabled tics patients. Deep brain stimulation has replaced lesional surgeries; however, there is uncertainty regarding the selection of patients and target of stimulation.
*Department of Neurology, Govind Ballabh Pant Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
†Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Correspondence to: Sanjay Pandey, MD, DM, Department of Neurology, Govind Ballabh Pant Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Academic Block, Room No. 507, New Delhi 110002, India. E-mail: email@example.com.