Review ArticlesHIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders A Historical ReviewRosca, Elena Cecilia MD, PhD*; Rosca, Ovidiu MD†; Simu, Mihaela MD, PhD*; Chirileanu, Ruxanda Dana MD, PhD*Author Information Departments of *Neurology †Infectious Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes,” Timisoara, Romania The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Rosca Elena Cecilia, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, Clinical Emergency County Hospital, Bd. Iosif Bulbuca nr. 10, Timisoara 300736, Romania. E-mail: [email protected]. The Neurologist: March 2012 - Volume 18 - Issue 2 - p 64-67 doi: 10.1097/NRL.0b013e318247bc7a Buy Metrics Abstract Background: The central nervous system represents a major target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the neurocognitive impairments associated with the disease represent a major cause of disability. Review Summary: The HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are presented from a historical point of view. The evolution of our knowledge and understanding of these primary complications of HIV infection is reviewed, starting with nomenclature and clinical staging and continuing with therapeutic options. Conclusions: Although considerable progress has been made in the research of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, they continue to represent a clinical challenge for neurologists. Because the evolution and the clinical manifestations of HIV infection have changed with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and the life expectancy has increased, the problems in these patients are complex and need neurologists with a thorough knowledge in HIV infection. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.