Meningiomas are biologically complex and clinically and surgically challenging. These features, combined with the rewarding potential for cure, make them of great interest to neurologists, neurosurgeons, and neuroscientists alike.
Initially, we review the clinical context of meningiomas, particularly recent changes in histopathological classification, diagnosis, and neuroimaging. Secondly, the underlying basic science as it has evolved over the last decades is summarized. The status of areas recently of intense interest, such as steroid hormone receptors and oncogenic viruses is described. Additionally, emerging areas of great promise, such as cytogenetics and molecular biology are presented. Lastly, we describe recent advances in management. In particular, skull-base surgery, image-guided surgery, and advances in radiotherapy are emphasized. The possible impact of basic research on management and outcome is also outlined.
Although usually benign and amenable to cure, meningiomas still present significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. Advances in basic science, surgery, and adjuvant therapy are widening the potential for safe, effective, evidence-based management leading to even better outcomes.