PAROXYSMAL DYSKINESIAS: PDF OnlyPAROXYSMAL DYSKINESIASSethi, Kapil D. MDAuthor Information From the Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia. Send reprint requests to: Kapil D. Sethi, MD, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912. The Neurologist: May 2000 - Volume 6 - Issue 3 - p 177-185 Buy Abstract BACKGROUND Paroxysmal dyskinesias are a heterogenous group of disorders that are characterized by the sudden onset of a variety of abnormal movements out of a background of normal motor activity. REVIEW SUMMARY Paroxysmal dyskinesias can be classified into four basic varieties: paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia. Most cases are idiopathic and familial, but sporadic cases and symptomatic cases as a result of a number of different causes are well described. The familial cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and the gene loci for some have been described. These disorders may belong to an ever-increasing family of episodic neurological disorders that are caused by a dysfunction of ion channels (channelopathies). CONCLUSIONS Paroxysmal dyskinesias can be idiopathic or symptomatic. The identification of distinct genetic loci will lead to a new genetic classification and to a better understanding of the idiopathic disorders. (THE NEUROLOGIST 6:177-185, 2000) © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.