In the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee, excellent outcomes are achieved in many patients with an isolated, intra-articular ACL reconstruction. Some patients, however, have ongoing instability or suffer graft rupture. Failure after ACL reconstruction is multifactorial, but residual anterolateral rotatory laxity is 1 potential contributing factor. Lateral extra-articular procedures are a heterogenous group of operations that were initially described as isolated treatments for the ACL deficient knee, and subsequently used in combination with intra-articular reconstructions. Initial observational studies were encouraging, however, comparative studies were less flattering and lead to a general abandonment of these procedures. With improved understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the anterolateral capsuloligamentous complex there has been a renewed interest in these procedures. Recent systematic reviews suggest efficacy of these procedures in improving rotational control, though data showing improved patient reported outcomes or reduced graft rupture rates are lacking. Preliminary results from ongoing clinical trials are supportive for lateral extra-articular tenodesis when used as an augment to modern, intra-articular ACL reconstructions in targeted, high-risk patients.
*Western Health, St Albans
†St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne
§Alfred Health, Melbourne
‡Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Windsor, Vic., Australia
The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.
For reprint requests, or additional information and guidance on the techniques described in the article, please contact Timothy Lording, MBBS, FRACS, at or by mail at Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, 33 The Avenue, Windsor, Vic. 3181, Australia. You may inquire whether the author(s) will agree to phone conferences and/or visits regarding these techniques.