Review ArticlesSystematic Reviews: Understanding the Best Evidence For Clinical Decision-making in Health Care: Pros and ConsMemon, Muhammed A. MBBS, MA Clin Ed, DCH, FACS, FRACS, FRCSI, FRCSEd, FRCSEng*,†,‡,§,∥; Khan, Shahjahan PhD*; Alam, Khorshed PhD¶; Rahman, Md Mizanur PhD#; Yunus, Rossita M. PhD**Author Information *School of Sciences ¶School of Commerce; Centre for Health Research, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba †Sunnybank Obesity Centre & South East Queensland Surgery, Sunnybank §Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast ‡Department of Surgery, Mayne Main, Medical School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia ∥Faculty of Health and Social Science, Bolton University, Bolton, Lancashire, UK #Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan **Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Reprints: Muhammed A. Memon, MBBS, MA Clin Ed, DCH, FACS, FRACS, FRCSI, FRCSEd, FRCSEng, Sunnybank Obesity Centre, Suite 9, McCullough Centre, 259 McCullough Street, Sunnybank, Qld 4109, Australia (e-mail: [email protected]). Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques: April 2021 - Volume 31 - Issue 2 - p 234-240 doi: 10.1097/SLE.0000000000000889 Buy Metrics Abstract In the era of evidence-based decision-making, systematic reviews (SRs) are being widely used in many health care policies, government programs, and academic disciplines. SRs are detailed and comprehensive literature review of a specific research topic with a view to identifying, appraising, and synthesizing the research findings from various relevant primary studies. A SR therefore extracts the relevant summary information from the selected studies without bias by strictly adhering to the review procedures and protocols. This paper presents all underlying concepts, stages, steps, and procedures in conducting and publishing SRs. Unlike the findings of narrative reviews, the synthesized results of any SRs are reproducible, not subjective and bias free. However, there are a number of issues related to SRs that directly impact on the quality of the end results. If the selected studies are of high quality, the criteria of the SRs are fully satisfied, and the results constitute the highest level of evidence. It is therefore essential that the end users of SRs are aware of the weaknesses and strengths of the underlying processes and techniques so that they could assess the results in the correct perspective within the context of the research question. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.