The use of robotics has been emerging for approximately 75 years, but only during the past 5 years has the potential of robotics been recognized by the surgical community as a whole. This personal perspective chronicles the development of robotics for the general surgical community, the role of the military medical research effort, and many of the major programs that contributed to the current success of robotics.
From the Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; and the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Military Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, U.S.A.
Received September 18, 2001; accepted October 16, 2001.
The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the author and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, or the Department of Defense.
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