Human Papillomavirus Positivity at 3 Anatomical Sites Among Transgender Women in Central Brazil : Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Human Papillomavirus Positivity at 3 Anatomical Sites Among Transgender Women in Central Brazil

de Oliveira, Brunna Rodrigues PhD; Diniz e Silva, Bruno Vinícius MSc; dos Santos, Kamila Cardoso MSc; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim PhD; Mota, Giana PhD; Saddi, Vera Aparecida PhD§; Rabelo-Santos, Sílvia Helena PhD; Villa, Luísa Lina PhD; Vaddiparti, Krishna PhD, MPE, MSW∗∗; Cook, Robert L. MD, MPH∗∗; Teles, Sheila Araujo PhD; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos PhD

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases 50(9):p 567-574, September 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001830


Transgender women (TGW) are susceptible to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human papillomavirus (HPV). Nonetheless, the exact data for this population are scarce. We estimated HPV positivity at the anal, genital, and oral sites among TGW and also identified the related characteristics and behaviors that could be risk factors for HPV infection in a sample of TGW in Brazil. Furthermore, we characterized the site-specific HPV genotypes among those who were positive for HPV at these 3 sites.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on TGW in Goiânia City (Central-Midwest region), Brazil, between April 2018 and August 2019. Respondent-driven sampling was applied for recruitment. Next, self-collected anal, genital, and oral samples were examined for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (SPF-10 primer). Human papillomavirus genotypes were identified in 12 TGW.


In the TGW included in the study, the anal, genital, and oral HPV positivity values were 77.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.3%–84.6%), 33.5% (95% CI, 26.1%–48.9%), and 10.9% (95% CI, 5.8%–17.0%), respectively. In addition, the majority of 12 participants who tested for HPV had multiple genotypes. HPV-52 was the most prevalent genotype identified at the anal (66.6%) and genital (40.0%) sites, whereas HPV-62 and HPV-66 were the most common at the oral site (25.0%).


A high HPV positivity was observed among TGW. Therefore, additional epidemiological studies on HPV genotypes should generate health intervention information, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.

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