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Prevalence of Rectal Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections: A Systematic Review

Dewart, Courtney, M.*; Bernstein, Kyle, T.; DeGroote, Nicholas, P.; Romaguera, Raul; Turner, Abigail, Norris§

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: May 2018 - Volume 45 - Issue 5 - p 287–293
doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000754
Reviews

We undertook a systematic review to examine rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) infections in women and men who have sex with men (MSM). English-language publications measuring rectal Ct or Ng prevalence using nucleic acid amplification tests were eligible. Searching multiple electronic databases, we identified 115 eligible reports published between January 2000 and November 2016. Overall, the prevalence of rectal Ct (9%) was higher than that of rectal Ng (4.7%). Rectal Ct prevalence was similar in MSM (9%) and women (9.2%), whereas rectal Ng prevalence was higher in MSM (6.1%) than in women (1.7%). Generally, rectal Ct prevalence was similar in sexually transmitted disease clinics (9.1%) and nonsexual health clinics (8.6%), whereas rectal Ng prevalence was somewhat lower in sexually transmitted disease clinics (4.5%) than in nonsexual health clinics (6%). These infections seem to be relatively common across a range of populations and clinical settings, highlighting the need for additional research on these preventable, treatable conditions.

A systematic review of rectal chlamydial and gonococcal infection prevalence among women and men who have sex with men found that infections are common across various geographical and clinical settings.

From the *Division of Epidemiology, The Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, OH; †OID/NCHHSTP and ‡OID/NCHHSTP (CTR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; and §Division of Infectious Diseases, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH

Conflict of Interest and Sources of Funding: All authors: None to report.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Correspondence: Abigail Norris Turner, PhD, 410 W. 10th Avenue, Doan N-1144, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. E-mail: ant@osumc.edu.

Received for publication September 12, 2017, and accepted October 28, 2017.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text, and links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the journal’s Web site (http://www.stdjournal.com).

© Copyright 2018 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association