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The Estimated Direct Medical Cost of Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States, 2008

Owusu-Edusei, Kwame Jr PhD, PMP*; Chesson, Harrell W. PhD*; Gift, Thomas L. PhD*; Tao, Guoyu PhD*; Mahajan, Reena MD, MHS; Ocfemia, Marie Cheryl Bañez MPH; Kent, Charlotte K. PhD*

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: March 2013 - Volume 40 - Issue 3 - p 197–201
doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318285c6d2
Original Study

Background Millions of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur in the United States each year, resulting in substantial medical costs to the nation. Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States.

Methods We assembled recent (i.e., 2002–2011) cost estimates to determine the lifetime cost per case of 8 major STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus, genital herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomoniasis and syphilis). The total direct cost for each STI was computed as the product of the number of new or newly diagnosed cases in 2008 and the estimated discounted lifetime cost per case. All costs were adjusted to 2010 US dollars.

Results Results indicated that the total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million cases of STIs that occurred among persons of all ages in 2008 in the United States was $15.6 (range, $11.0–$20.6) billion. Total costs were as follows: chlamydia ($516.7 [$258.3–$775.0] million), gonorrhea ($162.1 [$81.1–$243.2] million), hepatitis B virus ($50.7 [$41.3–$55.6] million), HIV ($12.6 [$9.5–$15.7] billion), human papillomavirus ($1.7 [$0.8–$2.9] billion), herpes simplex virus type 2 ($540.7 [$270.3–$811.0] million), syphilis ($39.3 [$19.6–$58.9] million), and trichomoniasis ($24.0 [$12.0–$36.0] million). Costs associated with HIV infection accounted for more than 81% of the total cost. Among the nonviral STIs, chlamydia was the most costly infection.

Conclusions Sexually transmitted infections continue to impose a substantial cost burden on the payers of medical care in the United States. The burden of STIs would be even greater in the absence of STI prevention and control efforts.

The total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million sexually transmitted infection cases that occurred among persons of all ages in the United States in 2008 was $15.6 billion (2010 dollars).

From the Divisions of *STD Prevention, †Viral Hepatitis, and ‡HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

Conflict of interest: None.

Source of funding: None.

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mention of company names or products does not imply endorsement by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Correspondence: Kwame Owusu-Edusei Jr, PhD, PMP, Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS E-80, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail:

Received for publication May 15, 2012, and accepted January 2, 2013.

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© Copyright 2013 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association