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Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Syphilis Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Chongqing Municipality, China

Xiao, Yan MD, DrPH*; Ding, Xianbin MD, MPH; Li, Chunmei MD, MPH; Liu, Jianbo MD, MPH; Sun, Jiangping MD, PHD*; Jia, Yujiang MD, DrPH§

doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181aac23d
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Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/syphilis infections and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, China.

Method: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to provide information, including sociodemographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related services in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Multiple methods, including venue-based recruitment, community outreach, Internet advertisements, and peer referral, were used to identify men in Chongqing willing to participate in this study.

Results: Of the 1692 participants, 10.8% were HIV-infected (range by district: 7.0%–15.0%), 8.6% were syphilis-infected, and 15.3% self-reported STD-related symptoms. HIV infection was associated with older age, recruitment from bathhouses/saunas, less education, more male sex partners, sex with a woman in the past 6 months, syphilis infection, and STD-related symptoms. Syphilis infection was associated with older age, less education, inconsistent condom use with a man, STD-related symptoms, and HIV infection. STD-related symptoms were associated with older age, being of nonlocal residency, inconsistent condom use with a humans, having ever paid for sex with a humans, HIV infection, and being from District 1.

Conclusions: HIV and syphilis infections have reached alarmingly high rates in Chongqing’s MSM population. Better targeted, in-depth and comprehensive intervention strategies are needed urgently, including education, condom promotion and distribution, STD control, drug use-related intervention, and advocacy for HIV counseling and testing with bridges to HIV prevention and care services. Widespread testing for HIV, syphilis, and other major STDs in this risk group should be considered as measures for control.

A study of men who have sex with men in Chongqing, China found alarmingly high rates of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis infections. Better targeted, indepth, and sustained comprehensive intervention strategies among this group are needed urgently.

From the *National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; †Chongqing Municipality CDC, Institute for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; ‡Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China; and §Institute for Global Health and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN

The authors thank Meredith Bortz from the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health for manuscript assistance and also thank Lei Xu from the Department of Biostatistics of Vanderbilt University for the statistics assistance.

Supported by the China Global Fund AIDS Program Round Five, the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute for Global Health and Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University.

Correspondence: Jiangping Sun, MD, PHD, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100050, China. E-mail: jpsun@chinaaids.cn, and Yujiang Jia, MD, DrPH, Institute for Global Health and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 750, Nashville TN 37203-1783. E-mail: Yujiang.Jia@vanderbilt.edu.

Received for publication January 8, 2009, and accepted April 15, 2009.

© Copyright 2009 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association