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Adolescent Dual Use of Condoms and Hormonal Contraception: Trends and Correlates 1991–2001


doi: 10.1097/01.OLQ.0000078628.84288.66

Background Use of condoms with hormonal contraceptive methods (dual use) is recommended for adolescents at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.

Goal The goal was to measure the extent of dual use among adolescents, to estimate trends in dual use 1991–2001, to assess factors associated with dual use in 2001, and to develop information useful for prevention programs.

Study Design We used 6 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of 9th–12th graders conducted 1991–2001. Each survey was an independent, nationally representative sample. Sample sizes ranged from 10,904 to 16,262, and overall response rates ranged from 60–70%. We estimated trends in dual use for the 1991–2001 period using linear logistic regression models of dual use on year of survey controlling statistically for grade, sex, and race/ethnic group, and evaluated correlates of dual use with chi-squared analysis.

Results Dual use increased significantly throughout 1991–2001, from 3.2% (95% confidence interval, ± 0.7%) in 1991 to 7.2% (± 0.8%) in 2001. During this period, condom use increased and pill use did not. In 2001, 32% (± 2.6%) of all users of hormonal methods (pill or injection) also used condoms. Students in a number of categories had higher rates of dual use: those who were white (8.9% ± 1.2%), 12th graders (9.2% ± 1.5%), and those aged 17 and older (8.8% ± 1.3%). Greater dual use was not associated with increased sexual or drug use risk behaviors.

Conclusion Dual use has increased but remains low, especially among those most at risk.

In nationally representative data of high school students, the percentage who used both condoms and hormonal contraceptives during last sexual intercourse increased from 3.2 to 7.2% between 1991 and 2001. Dual use was not associated with reported risk behaviors.

From the *Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Reproductive Health, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

Correspondence: John E. Anderson, PhD, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS E-46, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail:

Received January 24, 2003,

revised April 28, 2003, and accepted May 2, 2003.

© Copyright 2003 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association