Review ArticlesLow-Dose NSAIDs Efficacy in Orthopedic ApplicationsOliva, Francesco MD, PhD*,†; Quaranta, Marco MD*,†; Cipollaro, Lucio MD*,†; Conti, Valeria MD‡,§; De Bellis, Emanuela MD‡,∥; Filippelli, Amelia MD‡,§; Maffulli, Nicola MD, MS, PhD, FRCS (Orth)*,†,¶,# Author Information *Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery ‡Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy †Orthopedic Unit, University Hospital §Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University Hospital “San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D’Aragona”, Salerno, Italy ∥Post-graduate School in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy ¶Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, London #Keele University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Guy Hilton Research Centre, England Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Reprints: Lucio Cipollaro, MD, University of Salerno: Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Italy. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review: September 2022 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 147-161 doi: 10.1097/JSA.0000000000000353 Buy Metrics Abstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors] and COXIBs (the COX-2 selective inhibitors) may induce several potentially severe and life-threatening issues especially in elderly patients. The use of low-dose NSAIDs is associated with lower risk of side effects compared to the standard dosage. Low-dose NSAIDs could minimize the side effects of these drugs while maintaining their clinical efficacy and effectiveness. The present study evaluates the effectiveness and safety of low-dose NSAIDs in musculoskeletal applications. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.