The present study investigated the type of sport and activity level of athletes before they underwent knee and/or hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis (OA), and compared them with a control group of subjects who did not undergo knee and hip arthroplasty. We hypothesed athletes exposed to high physical loads during sports had the highest risk of developing OA requiring arthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. All the comparative clinical trials to August 2021 investigating the sport activity level between subjects who underwent arthroplasty versus those who did not undergo arthroplasty for OA were considered.
Data from 5 studies and 3638 patients were collected. The mean age for both groups was 47.61±15.5 years, and the mean body mass index was 24.6±2.1 kg/m2 17.6% were women. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale attested good quality of the methodology of the investigations included in the present study.
Intense physical exercise, implying a high cumulative number of hours of exercise which can lead to excessive joint overload, in both sexes is associated with greater likelihood of early knee and hip OA which may lead to prosthetic surgery. Moderate and recreational exposure to sport has minor degenerative effects, and is not associated with early onset OA requiring arthroplasty.