The Overhead Athletes ShoulderBakshi, Neil, MD; Freehill, Michael T., MDSports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review: September 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 3 - p 88–94 doi: 10.1097/JSA.0000000000000200 Review Article Buy SDC Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics The overhead athlete places tremendous forces across the shoulder which result in necessary adaptive, but also potentially pathologic structural change. In this chapter we aim to review the biomechanics of throwing, the mechanisms of injury with overhead sports, the detailed history, and physical examination in this population, and concluding with specific diagnoses and the various treatment options. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Michael T. Freehill, MD, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.