In order to reconstruct the medial knee to restore the original biomechanical function of its ligamentous structures, a thorough understanding of its anatomic placement and relationship with surrounding structures is required. To restore the knee to normal kinematics, the diagnosis and surgical approach have to be aligned, to successfully reconstruct the area of injury. Three important ligaments maintain primary medial knee stability: the superficial medial collateral ligament, posterior oblique ligament, and deep medial collateral ligament. It is important not to exclude the assistance that other ligaments of the medial knee provide, including support of patellar stability by the medial patellofemoral ligament and multiligamentous hamstring tendon attachments. Valgus gapping and medial knee stability is accounted for collectively by every primary medial knee stabilizing structure. The following will review the principal medial knee anatomic and biomechanical properties.
*Steadman Philippon Research Institute
†The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO
The study was performed at the Department of BioMedical Engineering, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO.
Disclosure: R.F.L. is a paid consultant, lecturer, and receives royalties from Arthrex and Smith & Nephew. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Robert F. LaPrade, MD, PhD, The Steadman Clinic, 181 W. Meadow Drive Suite 400, Vail, CO 81657.