Review ArticlesThe Role of Trochleoplasty in Patellofemoral InstabilityDuncan, Stephen T. MD*; Noehren, Brian S. PhD†; Lattermann, Christian MD*,‡Author Information Departments of *Orthopaedic Surgery †Physical Therapy ‡Center for Cartilage Repair and Restoration, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Christian Lattermann, MD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky, 740 South Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536. (e-mail: Christian.Lattermann@uky.edu). Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review: September 2012 - Volume 20 - Issue 3 - p 171-180 doi: 10.1097/JSA.0b013e31826a1d37 Buy Metrics Abstract The management of recurrent patellofemoral instability is challenging. The etiology of the instability is multifactorial, requiring the examination of lower limb alignment, relationship of the patella to the trochlear groove and tibial tubercle, and the soft-tissue restraints. As initial surgical efforts were aimed at isolated soft-tissue repair or reconstruction, patients often had continued instability. Thus, a heightened interest in trochleoplasty has occurred as trochlear dysplasia has been found in 85% of patients with recurrent instability. Different types of trochleoplasties have been developed depending on the type of dysplasia including the trochlear lengthening osteotomy, the proximal open trochleoplasty, the deepening trochleoplasty, and the arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty. The techniques, benefits, and results of these trochleoplasties will be presented in this review. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.