Review ArticlesAnimal Models for Translational Research on Shoulder Pathologies From Bench to BedsideLongo, Umile Giuseppe MD, MSc*; Forriol, Francisco MD, PhD†; Campi, Stefano MD*; Maffulli, Nicola MD, MS, PhD, FRCS(Orth)‡; Denaro, Vincenzo MD*Author Information *Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy †Research Unit FREMAP Hospital, Madrid, Spain ‡Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mile End Hospital, London, England The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Umile Giuseppe Longo, MD, MSc, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Rome, Italy (e-mail: [email protected]). Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review: September 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 3 - p 184-193 doi: 10.1097/JSA.0b013e318205470e Buy Metrics Abstract Several animal models have been used for in vivo and in vitro shoulder research. In vitro models, consisting of cadaveric specimens, are useful in providing basic understanding of the functioning of the shoulder and for biomechanical experiments. In vivo models provide the means to model living phenomena, such as tendon healing process, tendinopathy, instability, and adaptive responses to surgery. However, intrinsic differences among different species make translation to human shoulder pathologies difficult. Most of the animals used in experimental settings are quadrupeds, using the forelimbs for weight-bearing during locomotion, with no or minimal overhead activity. The various animal models already used to study shoulder pathologies are presented in this article. However, there is a lack of validation for these animal models, which provides challenge to the further research in this field. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.