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First Ray Disorders in Athletes

Nihal, Aneel MD, FRCS(Orth), MBBS, FRCSEd*; Trepman, Elly MD; Nag, David FRCR

Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review: September 2009 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 - p 160-166
doi: 10.1097/JSA.0b013e3181a5cb1f
Review Articles

Athletes who participate in contact sports (American football, soccer, rugby) or who are involved in high-impact sports (dancing, running, gymnastics) are susceptible to first ray forefoot injuries. Common first ray disorders in athletes include hallux rigidus, turf toe, sand toe, sesamoid disorders, and fractures. First ray disorders in athletes frequently are treated by nonoperative methods including relative rest, ice, elevation, activity modification, shoe modification, and insoles.

*Logan Hospital, Southside Health District, Meadowbrook, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Grand Itasca Clinic and Hospital, Grand Rapids, MN

Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull, East Yorkshire, UK

No funding has been received from any source regarding this article.

Reprints: Aneel Nihal, MD, FRCS(Orth), MBBS, FRCSEd, Logan Hospital, Southside Health District, Meadowbrook, South Brisbane Queensland 4131, Australia (e-mail:

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.